文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(377-394)/3194

あらゆる穀作にも通じて言えることだが、稲にはことに年久しい観察に養われた、口伝とも加減とも名づくべき技芸が備わっていた。

As with all grain crops, the rice was equipped with an art form that was particularly well-known for its long-standing observation, and it should be described as an oral and casual.

籾種ばかりを只ひょいと手渡しされたところで第一に食べてみることすらできない。

You can not even try eating at first if it is handed over with only the persimmon seeds.

単に栽培者が自ら携えてきたという以上に、父祖伝来の経験が集積調和して、これを教訓の形をもって引き継がれなかったら、この作物の次々の改良はさておき、外部の色々の障碍にすらも、対抗することができなかったろう。

If the pastoral experiences were integrated and harmonized and not taken over in the form of lessons, rather than simply the grower had carried it himself, then the successive improvement of this crop aside, even various external obstacles. Could not compete.

すなわち最初から、少なくとも或る程度の技術とともに、或いはそれ以外に米というものの重要性の認識とともに、自ら種実を携えて、渡って来たのが日本人であったと、考えずにはおられぬ理由である。

That is, from the beginning, at least with a certain degree of technology, or with the recognition of the importance of rice, besides that, it is the reason why it can not be ruled out that it was the Japanese who brought in and carried its own fruit. It is.

 米を数ある食料の一つに、近世始めて追加した国々の習慣と比較して、古来の稲作国の特徴というべきものは幾つもある。

Compared to the customs of countries that began adding modern rice to one of the many food sources, rice has many characteristics that should be characteristic of ancient rice-growing countries.

米を主食という言葉は軽々しく用いられているけれども、今も全国を通じて米食率はおそらくは三分の二以内、僅か半世紀以前までは、それが五十%を少し越える程度であり、しかもその中には都市と工場地、貴族富民その他の非農民階級の、米しか食わぬ者の多数を包含していた。

Although the term “Static food” is used lightly, the rice eating rate is probably still within two thirds throughout the country, and by a little over half a century it is only slightly above 50%, and among them It included a large number of urban and industrial areas, noble riches and other non-farmer-class people who only eat rice.

主として貧窮のため、年貢の苛斂だったためと、解せられたのにも根拠はあるが、今一つの理由は、是が本来は晴れの日の食物であったことで、年に幾度の節日祭日、もしくは親の日・身祝い日だけに、飽くまでそれを飲み食いして、身も心も新たにしようという趣旨が、古くからついて廻っていたことは、決して水田に乏しい地方だけに限らなかったのである。

There is a basis for being confusing, mainly because it was poor, and because it was an excuse for making a yearly contribution, but one more reason is that the food was originally a fine day food. The purpose of trying to drink and eat it until I get bored, and renew my body and mind only on my parents' day and celebration day, was that it was not long ago because it wasn't limited to areas that are poor in paddy fields. is there.

 かつて肉類のみによって生を営んだ時代が、我々の中にもあったということは信じにくい。

It is hard to believe that there was an era in which we once lived by meat only.

稲以外の作物や採取物の、飢を医するに足るものは以前も多く、その中には或いは起原の稲よりも古いものが、あるかも知れぬと思うにもかかわらず、注意せずにはおられない一つの特徴は、右に申すごとく特別にこれを重視し、あらゆる民間の信仰行事から、歳時暦法の末に至るまで、専ら稲の栽培収穫を目標として行われてきたことであった。

There are many crops and crops other than rice that are sufficient for medical treatment for hunger, and even if some of them are older than the original rice, it is not careful One characteristic that is not unique is that it has been focused exclusively on the cultivation and harvesting of rice, from all private religious events to the end of the calendar of years, with special emphasis on this as stated on the right. there were.

米の信仰的用途ともいうべきものが、もし日本一国だけの現象であるならば、なお自由なる種々の解釈を成り立たせるであろうが、是にはまた二、三の重要なる点において、四隣の幾つかの稲作国と共通のものが、指示し得られるようになって来たのである。

If it is a phenomenon that only one country in Japan should be said to be a religious application of rice, it will still support various interpretations that are free, but also in a few important points, Common to several rice-growing countries on the four sides came to be able to indicate and obtain.

昨年創始せられた新嘗研究会の成績が切に期待せられるとともに、一方にはまた稲の品種の精密なる比較検討によって、追々にその伝来の路筋を明かにし、延いては是を携えて東海の島々に進出した一つの民族の、故郷はどこであったかが判ってくる望みも、まるまる無いとまでは言われぬのである。

The results of the research group Xinjiang, which was founded last year, are expected to be very promising, and on the other hand, through precise comparison and examination of varieties of rice, the route of transmission will be revealed one after another, There is no hope that the hope of knowing where the hometown of one ethnic group advanced to the islands of Tokai is not complete.

二一

21

 人が大陸から稲の種を携えて、この列島に渡って来たのも、たった一度の偶然ではなかったのかもしれぬが、結果は一つに帰するようだから、私は考えやすい方を考えてみる。

It may not have been just a single accident that people came from the continent with rice seeds and came to this archipelago, but the result is likely to be one, so I think in terms of easy to think View.

沖縄諸島の有識者たちは、かつての金沢博士のイニシ北方説に心服して、どうしても北から南の方へ渡って行ったものと考えようとするが、それを何のために何人が計画したかと尋ねてみると、神の指定とでも答えるよりほかはないようである。

Experts in the Okinawa Islands are obsessed with the former theory of Dr. Kanazawa's Inishi northern theory, and try to think that they really went from the north to the south, but for what purpose they planned it When I ask, it seems that there is nothing more than answering God's designation.

結局は私の謂う海上の道、潮がどのように岐れ走り、風がどの方角へ強く吹くかを、もっと確実に突き留めてからでないと断定し難いが、稲を最初からの大切な携帯品と見る限りにおいては、南から北へ、小さな低い平たい島から、大きな高い島の方へ進み近よったという方が少しは考えやすい。

After all, it's hard to tell if the way of the sea I call it, how the tides break and the direction in which the wind blows, in a certain direction, but it's hard to tell if rice is a vital cell phone from the beginning From the south to the north, from a small low flat island to a large high island, it's a bit easier to think of it as far as the product is concerned.

ともかくも四百近くもある日本の島々が、一度に人を住ませたとは誰も思っておらず、そのうちの特に大きな大切な島へというのも、地図ができてから後の話である。

In any case, there are no more than 400 Japanese islands, but no one thinks that they could live in one at a time, and it is a later story after the map was created to those particularly large and important islands.

 宝貝の需要がさまで痛切ならず、人がそのために身命を賭し、怒濤を乗り切るまでの大きな刺戟がなくなったのは、徐福のローマンスよりもさらに前のことであろう。

The demand for the shellfish is not so painful, and it is even earlier than the luns of Xufu that the person bet for it and there was no big acupuncture before getting over the rage.

人がその島をわが島と呼んで、安んじて住むようになれば、やがては生産の地が足りなくなって、行きやすい隣の島を物色することは、是は水平線外の冒険とは話がちがう。

If a person calls the island my island and will live in peace, then there will not be enough land for production, and it will be easy to find the next island where it is easy to go, an adventure outside the horizon is a story It's different.