文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(534-553)/3194

根屋の一人娘の大病に、猿の生肝がよく利くとわかって、猿を騙してつれて来ようとして失敗する話で、他の多くの竜宮入り話と比べて、よほど型変りでありまた新らしい。

It is a story that finds that the raw liver of a monkey is good for the big sickness of a daughter of a rooter, and tries to come back to crawl over a monkey and fails, and it is a lot of strangeness compared to many other Ryugu stories. It seems new.

『今昔物語』や『沙石集』に、半分以上も是と同じ話があるので、そそっかしい者には古い話の保存とも見えるが、彼には仙郷が無くまた使者の失敗と懲罰ということが無く、多分は仏典の中から採択した説話であったのを、後に竜宮入りと結びつけて、一つの新らしい笑話を作り上げたものと思われ、この程度の改作の技能は、素人でも持っていたらしい例は多い。

There are more than half of the same stories in "Present Story" and "Saishishu", so it seems like a mischievous person to preserve the old story, but he has no Sengoku and that the messenger's failure and punishment It seems that it was something that was a narrative that had probably been adopted from the Buddhist scripture, and was later linked with the entry into the Ryugu shrine, and that one new laugh story was made, and it seems that even an amateur has this skill of adaptation There are many examples.

ことにいわゆる一尋鰐の物語の、古い印象に養われた人々ならば、猿が亀の背に乗って、得々として海の都に行く絵様に、どれくらい興じ笑ったかしれぬのである。

In particular, people who have been fed with the old impression of the so-called "one-on-a-don" story have to wait for how long they smile in a picture like a monkey riding on the back of a turtle and going to the sea capital.

ところが誰でも知っているごとく、沖縄諸島には猿という獣はいない。

However, as anyone knows, there are no beasts called monkeys in the Okinawa islands.

したがって是を単なる昔話の役者として受け入れる以外に、みずからこのような改作をする力も無く、またその資材も持っていなかったろうと思う。

Therefore, I think that I would not have the power to make such adaptations alone and that I would not have the materials as well, except to accept me as a mere actor of folklore.

いつ如何なる機会に輸入したかは言えないが、ちょうどニルヤに往来したという色々の昔話が、発達普及の頂点に達した際だけに、この種の笑話化は案外な効果を収めたのではないかと思う。

Although I can not say when or when it was imported, various kinds of old-fashioned tales that just came to Nilya might have brought about an unexpected effect only when they reached the top of development and diffusion. think.

猿を欺いて海底につれ込もうとした使者の役は、亀という例が最も多く、それが新旧二通りの説話の交叉点にもなったかとも思われるのだが、南の島々ではその役をカマフタすなわち海月とし、或いはまた猿の自然の敵といわれる犬を使に遣ったという話さえある。

The role of the messenger who tried to fool the monkey and bring it to the seabed is most often the case of the turtle, and it seems that it also became the cross point of the new and old two-way narratives. In other words, there is even a story that he used it as a sea moon, or a dog that is also said to be the natural enemy of monkeys.

是などもおそらくは島の外で、すでに出来上っていた一つの説話を、新たに移し入れた証拠であった。

This was also evidence for the transfer of one narrative already done, perhaps outside the island.

こういうものまでを引きくるめて、ニルヤの本質を考えてみる資料とすることはできぬと思う。

I think that it can not be taken as a material to think about the essence of Nirya by drawing such things up.

七 動物報恩型

Seven animal reports

 我々のいわゆる竜宮入りの話の中で、人を笑わせるために新たに結構せられたと思われるものは、猿の生肝ただ一つであるが、その他の幾つかの話しかたとても、よく見るとやはり動機の差、したがってまた出来た年代の前後があり、最初からこう色々の種類が、並び存していたのではなかった。

Among our so-called Ryugu stories, the only thing that seems to have been done anew to make people laugh is the monkey's live liver, but some other stories look very well. After all there was a difference in motives, and therefore also around the age of creation, and from the beginning these various types were not present side by side.

発端と結末との二つの点から比べ合わせて見ればそれがほぼ判る。

If you compare it from the two points of the beginning and the end, it is almost clear.

たとえば魚の命を助けて、その御礼に好い処へ招待せられ、または無類の財宝をもらってくるという動物報恩型、是などは世界的な分布をもち、また古代からよく知られてもいるが、是と極東のニルヤ話とが結びついたのは、必ずしも非常に古いとは言えない。

For example, animals have a global distribution, such as being able to save a fish's life and be invited to a place of gratitude for it, or receive an incomparable treasure, but it has a global distribution, and it has been well known since ancient times, It is not always very old that the text of the message was combined with the Nyolya story of the Far East.

浦島太郎が子供のなぶる亀を買い取って、放してやった故にその御礼に、海底の宮殿に連れて行かれたということは、少なくとも初期の文献には全然見えない。

The fact that Urashima Taro bought and released her child's navy turtle and was taken to a palace on the seabed for that reason is at least not visible at all in the early literature.

そうして一方沖縄の島および宮古島などに伝わっていた同系の口碑には、単に海辺に出て非常に長い髪の毛を見つけ、その不思議に感動していると、美しい女性が現われて、彼を海の向うの仙郷に誘って行ったということになっており、ただその中の一つだけが、髢を拾って返してやった御礼のように、言い伝えているのである。

Then, on the other hand, on the similar monument that has been transmitted to the island of Okinawa and Miyakojima etc., when she simply goes out to the beach and finds very long hair and is moved by the wonder, a beautiful woman appears and he gets him It is supposed to be invited to the other side of Senkyo, and only one of them is telling like a thank you for picking and returning the kite.

『書紀』の海神宮の物語においても、一書にただ一つだけ、羂にかかっていた川鴈を助けたことが、むしろやや唐突に語り添えられてあるのを見ると、そういう話しかたも試みられていたことは判るが、もとは二人の男女の相喜ぶというだけでも、それが蓬莱へのパスポートとして、十分な時代があったということが推測せられるのである。

Even in the story of Kaijingu in "Shonoki", it is said that it is such a story if it is noted that only one book helped the river bank that was on the bottom of the story, but rather it was accompanied by a sloppy Although it is understood that they have been tried, it can be inferred that there was a sufficient time as a passport to the nephew just by having the two men and women agree.

 人が何万何十万とある中に、そのたった一人が選ばれて、そういう幸福の国へ遊びに行くことができた理由は、説明を求められるのが自然である。

While there are hundreds of thousands of people, it is natural to ask for an explanation why one of them was chosen and able to go to a country of such happiness.

その説明には二つの方向があった。

There were two directions in the explanation.

一つは当人にそれだけのねうちがあったこと、無慾無邪気の善人が選に当り、または親孝行の徳によって、海に迎えられたという話も南の島にあった。

There was also a story on the southern island that one was that he had so much jealousy, a good man of innocence was elected, or that he was greeted by the sea by virtue of filial piety.

今一つは何らかの功労によるもの、鯛や海亀に姿をかえて、たまたま岸近く遊びに出ていた竜宮の乙姫が、凡俗のために苦しめられているのを救って、豊かに賞せられた話は色々とあり、是にも島ごとの発達は著しいが、だいたいにこの方は新らしいものが多いかと思う。

The other story is the story of being richly prized, saving that the princess of the dragon palace, who happened to be near the shore by chance, turns into a whale and a sea turtle, by something of some kind of service There are many things, and the development of each island is remarkable, but I think this person is mostly new.