文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(981-1001)/3194

前年改元の都の沙汰が、辺土に伝わって行った状況に照し合わせると、ここに二年とあるが殊に真実性をもつように受け取られる。

In light of the situation where the capital of the previous year's capital was sent to the land, it has been received for two years, but to be particularly true.

すなわち一時は少なくともそういう年号が、新たに制定せられたものと信じて、これを用いた人が多かったのである。

In other words, there were many people who believed that at least one such year was newly enacted.

この弥勒二年|丁卯という年が、後柏原天皇の永正四年、西暦一五〇七年に該当することにはまず疑いがない。

There is no doubt that the year of Dinghe will fall under the Emperor Shougawara's Edo Period fourteen five hundred seventy-five years.

単に干支が一致するという以上に、記録の上からも推定し得られ、また土地の人々が誰も彼も、十|干十二|支の年繰りを誤るということは有り得ないからである。

More than simply the zodiac agrees, it can be deduced from the record, and it is impossible for no one in the land to mislead him.

しかしそうした偽りの年号が、いかにしてこのように弘く、一般に遵奉せられることになったかというと、ただ乱世の交通不便だけでは説明がつかない。

However, it is not easy to explain how to make such a shaly yearly issue come to be obeyed like this in general, just because of the transportation inconvenience of the world.

風説の根元には相応な力があり、しかもこれを遠くに運ぶほどの情報組織のあったことが想像せられる以上に、一方民間にも文字ある階級を引きくるめて、是をさもあるべしと思うような、常識なり信仰|素地なりがあったものと見なければならぬ。

At the root of the sentiment there is a corresponding power, and it is better to imagine the kind of information organization that will carry this far, while also drawing the class that is literally in the private sector. You have to see what you think, common sense and faith |

年号の更定には、国家の瑞祥を記念したものもあるがそれは大昔の話、後代は革令革命の理論に基づいて、定まった年次にそれが行われた以外、大抵は何か望ましからぬ異変があった次の年に、改元があるものときまっていた。

There are also those in commemoration of the birth of the nation in the revision of the issue of the year, but it is a long time story, but the generation is usually something other than that which was done in the decided annual based on the theory of the Reign Revolution. In the next year, when there was an undesirable change, there were times when there was a change.

朝廷の力が衰微して、それさえも計画し難い期間はつづいたのだが、なお大衆はこれを予想し、荒れ狂う飢饉疾疫のさなかにおいて、そういう呪法に近い善政を待ち焦れていたのである。

The power of the court declined, and even the planning period continued, but still the public was expecting it, and in the midst of the raging famine epidemic, it was still looking for good politics close to such a curse.

現在もまだ残っている世直しという言葉は、或いはこの頃に始まったものかもしれない。

The word "rebuilding" that still remains today may have been started around this time.

江戸ではたしかに田沼政権の倒壊した際にも、刺客の佐野|某を世直し大明神と謂って、墓参りが賑わったという話もある。

Even when the Tanuma administration collapsed in Edo, there is also a story that the grave has been crowded, saying that the thug, Sano |

普通は地震の時の唱え言ぐらいにしか用いなかったが、世の中とは元来農作の豊凶のことであった。

Normally, it was used only as a recitation at the time of the earthquake, but the world was originally a crop of agricultural farming.

すなわちその世の中を復興する力が、隠れて外にあり、それを信心によって招き寄せ得るということが、悩み苦しむ生活のせめてもの楽しみだったかと思われる。

In other words, it seems that the power to revive the world is hidden and outside, and that it can be called in by faith, at the very end of the troubled life.

弥勒という年号などは、京都の教養人にはもとより意外であり、また滑稽でもあったろうけれども、是があるためにこの種の他力信仰の時代色、もしくは中心とも根源とも名づくべきものが、少しずつ摸索して行かれるのである。

The year of the samurai, etc. would have been surprising as well as humorous to the liberals of Kyoto, but because of gratification, the age of this kind of other power faith, or what should be named as the center or the root It will be prying little by little.

四 鹿島の事ふれ

Four Kashima's things

 故橋川正君の日本仏教文化史の研究に、常陸鹿島の弥勒の船の踊歌を、このいわゆる弥勒二年の私年号と、関係のある現象だろうと説かれたのは、注意すべき一つの見解であった。

It should be noted that in the late study of Hashikawa Masaru's study of Japanese Buddhist cultural history, the dance song of the boat of Hitotsu Kashima was supposed to be a phenomenon related to this so-called private year of the second year. It was one view.

後の改作が想像し得られるにかかわらず、今伝わっている謡の辞句も、表現がいかにも素樸であって、室町期の気分が感じられるほかに、一方には寛永の頃、諸国に疫癘の災いがあり、鹿島の神輿を渡してその患いを除かんことを祷った際に、この躍を踊ったのが始めだという言い伝えもあるというから、少なくとも近年の流行でないだけは判る。

Regardless of the later adaptation, I can see the remarks of 謡 which are now being transmitted, and the expression is very good, and I feel the mood of the Muromachi period. There is a misfortune of the wolf, and it is said that it is the beginning of the dance that started to dance when you hand over the kashima gods and ask them to remove their afflictions, so you can see at least not only the recent epidemic.

この私年号の称え始めが、鹿島だという証拠はまだ見当らぬが、常陸一国の文書の中にも二、三の実例はあって、ここが年号使用圏の東の端であり、そのうえに伊勢・春日とも対立するほどの、有力な信仰の中心があったのだから、その想像には若干の根拠なしとしない。

There is no evidence that this private year's issue begins to be praised, but it is Kashima, but there are also a few examples in the book of one country, and this is the eastern end of the year use area, Moreover, because there was a strong center of faith that would conflict with both Ise and Kasuga, I can not assume that there was some ground in that imagination.

 我々の是から資料を捜し求めて、由来を明らかにしてみたいと思うことの一つは、鹿島の事触と呼ばれた下級神人の巡歴である。

One of the things that we want to search for materials from our principles and want to clarify the origin is the travel history of a lower-class deity called Kajima's event.

近頃の記録に出ているのは、すべて願人坊主に近い門付け物貰いの徒であったが、それでもまだ彼らの唱えあるいた歌詞などの中には、比較に値する僅かずつの特徴が伝わっている。

Although recent records show that they are all gatekeepers who are close to the client, but there are still some features that are worthy of comparison in the lyrics that they have advocated.

そうして鹿島の神威のまったく及ばぬような遠い地方にも分散して、活計のためにかなり自由な宣伝もしていたらしいが、別に本社の公認を受けて、御札配り等をした者も少しはあって、両者の分堺は必ずしも明白でなかった。

In this way, it is said that they were distributed to distant areas where the Kashima godly did not reach at all, and that they were quite freely advertising for their livelihoods, but also those who made a handout, etc. The births of both were not necessarily obvious.

『常陸国誌』の記すところに依れば、鹿島事触は夙く現われ、すでに寛文十年(一六七〇)という年に、寺社奉行は大宮司則教の申立に基づいて、彼らの業務を祈祷と札配りとに限定し、それも本社の允許を受くることを必要とし、かつ事触の名を改めて、御師と謂うことにしたとある。

According to the description in "The Chronicle of National Land", the Kashima Incident has come to light, and in the year of the 16th year of Kanbun (16,700), the temples and shrines vowed to their duties based on the petition by Omiya It is necessary to limit the company to prayers and handouts, and it is also necessary to receive the permission of the head office, and it is said that the name of the event has been called "Oshi-shi" again.