文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(1215-1236)/3194

 そのかわりには、ここには意識した教法の改革というものがなく、やや散乱の姿ではあるけれども、固有の信仰の古い形が、さまでの強弁を費さずして、ほぼ窺い知ることができるようである。

Instead, there is no such thing as a reform of conscious scripture, and although it is a somewhat scattered figure, the old form of the inherent faith is that it is almost ugly to know without spending the insult It seems to be possible.

島では宮古と同様に、一度も強力なる統一者が出なかったために、セヂを集めて王様に奉れというような、新たな祈祷の式は起こらず、海の彼方から訪れたまう年々の神の恵みは、もっぱら稲を作る人々の、島ごとの小さな群に向けられていた。

As in Miyako, on the island there was no strong unity ever once, so there was no new prayer ceremony, such as collecting sejis and offering them to the king, and the gods of the year-round gods visited from across the sea Blessing was directed to a small group of islanders of rice producers.

古見の近世の聞書に、

In the early-earnings of the ancient times,

猛貌の御神、身に草木の葉を纏ひ、頭に稲穂をいたゞき、出現之時は豊年にして、出現なき時は凶年なれば、所中の人、世持神と名づけ、崇め来り候………「八重山旧記帳、雍正五年(一七二七)。

The god of ferocity, the leaves of the plants and the trees, the leaves of the plants, the heads of rice with the heads of rice, the year of appearance is a rich year, and the day of no appearance is a bad year. The sobering climax ... ...... "Yaeyama Old Book, 雍 5 years (1 7 2 七 7)."

南島聞書に依る。」

It depends on the South Island letter. "

とあるのが、古来の姿のままかと思われる。

It seems that there is an ancient figure as it is.

ヨという日本語は、漢字の「世」をもって処理せられてから、だんだんに永い期間と解するようになってきたが、本来は竹の節と節との間をヨと謂うのと同じ語で、ことに稲作の一期を限ってそういうことは、日本の方でも弘くまた久しく、たとえば『続猿蓑』の連句の短句にも、

The Japanese word yo has been treated with the kanji `` world '' and has come to be understood as a long period of time, but originally it is the same word as the word “yo” between bamboo sections And, in particular, limiting the period of rice cultivation, it has been a long time in Japan as well, for example, in the short phrases of the couple of "Seijirushi",

奥の世なみは近年の出来

The world behind is a recent achievement

とあるのも稲作のことで、今も年とった人の中では、そういう言葉使いはよく通用する。

There is also rice cultivation, and among those who are still old, such wordings pass well.

 ただ何故に特に稲の一生産期だけに限ってこれをヨと呼ぶのかの理由だけが不明だった。

However, it was unclear why the reason was to call it Yo, especially for only one production season of rice.

それが南端八重山古見の例によって、この一種の穀物のみが特に重要であり、それの豊凶をもって神意の向うところを知り、これによって以後一年間の人間の幸福の、程度厚薄を卜する信仰があったことが、ほぼわかってくるのである。

According to the example of the southern end Yaeyama Komi, only this kind of grain is particularly important, knowing where the godliness goes with its good and bad, and thereby the faith that overthrows the thinness of human happiness for one year It is almost understood what happened.

日本の古来の農村でも、米は重要なる食料という意味で、主食と謂うことはできたか知らぬが、常食ということは事実に合しなかった。

Even in old Japanese rural areas, rice did not know whether it could be called staple food in the sense of important food, but it was not true that it was a regular diet.

米よりほかに食うものが無いという地方などは、近世以後の埋立新田のほかには有り得なかった。

It was impossible for regions such as the area where there was nothing to eat other than rice, except in the landfill Nitta since the early modern period.

そこには都市が興り商工が繁栄して、いわゆる米穀経済を成立せしめたけれども、それは交易のまた新らしい段階であって、なお一部の古風の家庭ではついこの頃まで、白い飯を炊くのは神の日か仏の日、節供・祭礼・祝い事のような、折目立った日に限るのが普通であった。

The city has risen and commerce has prospered, and so-called rice grain economy has been established, but it is a new stage of trade, and some old-fashioned families are still cooking white rice until these days. It was usually limited to the day when God's Day or Buddha's Day, as a holiday, a festival, a celebration, etc.

驚くべき最近の増産技術の進歩と、自由なる外国貿易の展開とが、今|辛うじてそれを可能にしたばかりで、しかも現実にそれを許されぬ家々もまだ多いのである。

The remarkable recent technological advances in production and the development of free foreign trade have just made it possible now, yet there are still many houses that can not be forgiven in reality.

一〇 世持神と世持役

One hundred holding gods and tenors

 ことに南方の諸島においては、温暖多湿の一、二点は別にして、自然の条件は必ずしも万全であったとは言えない。

Especially in the southern islands, apart from one or two points of warmth and humidity, it can not be said that natural conditions were not completely perfect.

砂地石地の始めから稲作に適せぬ地域が広い上に、たまたま水田に拓き得た場合にも、僅かな例外を除いては、嵐や高浪などの外部の障害に対して、自衛の道が立てにくかった。

A wide area not suitable for rice cultivation from the beginning of sandy soils, and even if it is possible to open up to paddy fields, with few exceptions, it is a self-defense route against external obstacles such as storms and high waves. It was hard to stand.

勿論是がまた古い祖先の、神の好意をいつまでも信頼せんとした理由であったろうが、同時にまた広く諸処の海辺を経歴して、比較を重ねたうえの選定ではなかったことが察せられ、手短かに言うならばこの方面の移住は日本よりも古く久しく、しかもなお偶然に初期の信仰を、一部は失わずに持ち伝えていたものかと、自分などは推定しているのである。

Of course, it may have been the reason why he always relied on God's favor of his older ancestors, but at the same time he was also widely used in the seaside, and was found not to have been selected repeatedly. In other words, migration in this direction is older than in Japan, and it is presumed by oneself that they have carried the early faith by chance without losing a part of it.

 稲がニライカナイの本国から、種子をもたらされたという、沖縄以北の島々の語り伝えは、無論さながらに事実として受け入れてよいものではあるまいが、少なくとも大和島根の方では、南北両面の海辺づたいに、久米という氏族の次々と移住していった昔の痕跡を留めているに対して、奄美大島にも沖縄の主島にも、各々その西南側に古見または久米という旧地があり、さらに南端の八重山群島のまんなかに、古見または球美という稲作の大きな根拠地があったのである。

The narratives of the islands north of Okinawa that the rice was brought from the home country of Niraikanai, though it may not be acceptable as a matter of course, but at least for Yamatoshimane, both the north and south beaches In contrast to the traces of the old people who moved to the Cume clan, the Amami Oshima and the main island of Okinawa each have an old site such as Komi or Kume on the southwest side. In the middle of the Yaeyama Archipelago on the southern end, there was a large ground for rice cultivation, Komi or Takumi.

『続日本紀』の霊亀元年に、南島から日本の使臣に引率せられて、来朝したという信覚・球美らの国人が、各|方物を貢して位を賜わったという記事は、夙くから双方に知られていた。

It is said that Japanese nationals who came to Japan from the south island and were led by a Japanese enthusiasm in the last year of the Reimetoka of 'Consecutive Japan' gave a position by contributing each of the monks. Articles were known to both sides from the ground up.

信覚が今の石垣島の外に引当てられぬ以上は、その後に続く球美もまた、その西隣の古見にちがいないと、島の人たちは信じているのだが、何分にも是と前に挙げた『旧記帳』の記事との間には、まる一千年ほどの時の間隔があって、それを橋架けるほどの文献の繋がりがない。

The people of the island believe that the belief is not out of the present Ishigaki Island, and that the subsequent Bumi is also the same as that of the western neighbor. Also, there is an interval of about a thousand years between the articles in the "old book" mentioned above, and there is no link in the literature to bridge it.