文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(1484-1504)/3194

 ここに鼠の始祖を天の日といい、また人の世に降りくるということは、島人も後にはそう考え出したにちがいないが、私からみると是は宗教発達の一つの過程であって、最初は太陽もまた海の浄土の信仰に含まれ、むしろその信仰の基底でもあった故に、鼠がこれを父として生まれるというような、奇異なる言い伝えも発生し得たのかと思う。

It is true that the origin of the nephew is called the day of heaven, and it is certain that the islanders later came to think that coming down to the world of people, but from my point of view it is a process of religious development At first, because the sun was also included in the faith of the Pure Land in the sea, and rather it was the basis of that faith, I think it might have occurred a strange legend such that the nephew was born as a father.

そのいわゆる大テダの最も美しく輝かしく、また畏こくも尊とくも仰ぎ望まれたのは、大陸でもそうだったかも知れぬが、海のとなかの島国にあっては、ことに早朝の一刻、旭の豊さかのぼりといわれた日出の前と後とであった。

The most beautiful and glorious of the so-called Great Teda, and it may have been the case in the continent that it was hoped that it would be the same as in the continent, but in the island country of the sea, especially in the early morning, It was before and after Hiji, which was said to be a return of Asahi.

『おもろ草紙』の神歌を見わたしても、沖縄の島人が日の神のけ高い御姿を、花とも錦とも詠歎したのは、すべて神がまだニライカナイの国を離れたまわぬうちだけで、テダが穴などという語は吾々には俗に聴えるけれども、ちょうど昇る日の直下だけが、鮮かに光り輝いているのを見て、そこを特殊に尊くもまた慕わしい神の島と感じて、数々の幻しを積み重ねたのも自然であった。

Even if I see the song of "Omoro Sosushi", all that the islanders of Okinawa have seen the tall figure of the god of the day, and both flowers and reeds, is only when the god has yet to leave the country of Niraikanai So, although I can listen to the word “Teda” as a hole, I see that only the rising sun is brightly shining, and there is a godly island that is particularly precious and precious. It was also natural to feel and accumulate many visions.

それを新たな輸入の原理が、だんだんに突き崩してきたように思われる。

It seems that the principle of new imports has gradually been broken down.

Seven

 たとえば沖縄のオボツカクラは、ちょうど本州の高天原に相当するものらしいが、あれに比べるとなお一段と茫漠としていて、ほとんと地理上の概念ともいうことができない。

For example, Obotsukakura in Okinawa seems to be the equivalent of Takanawa in Honshu, but it is even more vague than that, and it can not be said as a geographical concept either.

一方には安の川原、天の長田という類の、地名らしきものも生まれているが、こちらは山か空か、どの辺にあるのかも考えられず、そうしてまた語義も明らかでない。

On the other hand, although there are some kind of geographical names such as Anno Kawahara and Heavenly Nagata, this is mountain or sky, and it can not be considered which side it is and so the meaning is also unclear.

察するに是は半成の神学とも名づくべきもので、夙く東海岸に起こった日の神の信仰はまだ強く、文化の中心が西岸の浜に移って、対岸大陸の影響を甘受する時代になっても、なおこれを天帝系統の教理に組み替えることが、そう容易ではなかったのである。

In order to detect it, it should be called semi-genetic theology, and the god's faith on the day that happened on the east coast is still strong, the center of culture shifts to the beach on the west coast, and the influence of the other continent is received. Even then, it was not so easy to rearrange it into the Tenshin system doctrine.

『おもろ草紙』の多くの歌を見ても、テダという語の用法は、旧日本の方よりもずっと弘い。

Even if you look at the many songs of "Omoro Sosushi", the usage of the word "Teda" is far more powerful than the old Japanese.

独り全土を統一した最高の王者のみと言わず、島々のかはら即ち頭、一地に割拠した大小の按司・世の主もまたテダであった。

Not only the best king who united the whole land alone, but also the heads of the islands, that is, the heads of the islands, and the lands of the large and small Shojis and the world, were also Teda.

いわゆるテダが末、すなわち日の神の後裔という想像は、この海上の国において承認せられやすかったので、それというのもその本源のニライカナイが、八重の波路の遥かあなたとは言いながらも、必ずしも往来しがたい処とまでは考えられなかったからであろう。

The imagination of the so-called Teda was the end of the god of the day, that is, it was easy to be recognized in this maritime country, so even though its original origin Niraikanai is not necessarily said to be far from you in the eightfold waveguide. It may be because it was not thought that it was difficult to come and go.

実際にまた人がこの海中の国へ招かれて遊びに行き、いろいろ御馳走になり宝物をもらい、またはニルヤの大主のたった一人の娘を、嫁に所望して連れて還ったというほかに、黄金をひり出す猫や小犬を、譲り受けてきたというような昔話が、あの島この島に数多く語り伝えられている。

In addition to the fact that another person was invited to this underwater country to go out to play, to have various treats, to receive treasures, or to bring the only daughter of Niluja's lord to his daughter-in-law, Many old-fashioned stories, such as having handed over a gold-scaring cat or dog, are being told and told on this island.

無論この通りの事実がかつてあったとは言えないが、こういった昔話の成立は一つの歴史である。

It goes without saying that the facts of this street did not exist before, but the establishment of such old-fashioned tale is a history.

ことに鼠が海を渡ってくるというまでは、稀々に新らしい現実の証拠もあった。

There were also rare evidences of a new reality, especially until a whale came across the sea.

いわゆるテダが穴の信仰のなお活きていた時代ならば、彼らを神の子の最も好ましからぬものとして、故郷に喚び戻し閉じ籠めて置いていただこうという祷りが、熱烈であったのも当然と見てよかろう。

If the so-called Teda was still alive in the faith of the hole, it would be natural that the indignation that they should be called back to their hometowns and put them back together as the least favored of the Son of God Let's see.

 しかし久米島ただ一つの実例だけでは、まだそう確かなことは言えない。

However, with only one instance of Kumejima, it is not possible to say that yet.

弘く内外の島々において、鼠の害を防ぎ免れる方法は、どうしていたか、それを次々と突きとめる必要がある。

In the islands inside and outside Japan, it is necessary to find out how to prevent and avoid the damage of whales one after another.

旧日本の各地には鼠送りが多いかと思われ、伊豆の三宅島などでも、村からやや遠い空野に祭場を設け、それへ色々の食物を取り揃えて鼠送りをしていたということで、そこには現在小さな祠があるそうである。

It seems that there are a lot of fish feeding in all parts of the old Japan, and even in Izu's Miyakejima and so on, a festival was set up in the vacant land a little far from the village, and various food was stocked and sent to that It is said that there is a small rabbit at present.

沖縄の方でも近い頃まで、一匹の鼠を捕えて麦藁の舟に載せ、それを代表的に海へ流すという行事、ちょうどこちらの虫送りと似た風習があった。

By the time Okinawa was approaching, there was a custom of catching an ax and putting it on a brow of a straw and representatively putting it into the sea, a practice similar to this insect feeding.

伊平屋の島の稲穂祭などではその日に唱えたというノダテゴト、すなわち一種の願文の言葉の、是も相応に古い頃のものが、文書に残っている。

In the rice field festival of the island of Idayaya, the documentary Nodategot, that is, the word of a kind of application, remains as old as it is in the document.

前に援用した久米島のオタカベと異なる点は、この方では鼠の来歴を明示せず、またニライの神に送り返すという文言はなく、ただこの害獣の地面の下から出てきて、しばしば田作りを食み荒らすを憎み、それを呪詛して無力ならしめようとするだけであるが、次のような発端の数句があって、それが是からの問題になるのである。

The difference from Omekabe on Kumejima, which I used earlier, is that this person does not clearly indicate the history of the wolf, and there is no word to send it back to the god of the miracle, but it just comes out from under the ground of this pest, often making rice. It only hate food and curse it and try to help it, but there are a few phrases of the beginning, and it becomes a problem from that point.