文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(1861-1884)/3194

二、三の辞書類にもそういう説明をしたものがあるようだが、夙く『倭名鈔』には豆之太万とあるのだから、是は明らかに後世の誤解であった。

It seems that some dictionaries have such an explanation, but it is clear that “Tomei Kusunoki” has Tonota 10,000, so this is clearly a misunderstanding of the afterlife.

 同じ植物はまた沖縄の島々にも分布するらしいが、それを各地で現在は何というか。

The same plant also seems to be distributed on the islands of Okinawa, but what is it now at various places?

まず当ってみることが一つの手がかりだと思う。

I think that it is one clue to try to hit first.

伊波さんの選釈の中に、ススタマという草の実を玉に貫き、それを首にかけて魔よけにする風習が残っているとあるのは注意すべきだが、はたして本島ではたしかにススダマと謂ったかどうか、単に標準名の援用でないかどうか。

It is worth noting that there is still a custom of persuading grass fruit called sustama in the ball and turning it into a devil in Ina-san's election, but it is true that it was indeed Susudama in Honjima. , Whether it is not simply the incorporation of standard names.

是非今一度たしかめてみたい。

I would like to ask you by all means now.

宮良氏の『南島|叢考』には八重山では※苡仁をチーダマと謂い、これを常の日の頸珠にする風があったというのは、近い頃までのことだったかどうか。

In Miyae's "Minamijima | Contemporaries", Yaeyama called * Aihito as a chiidama, and it was until recently that there was a wind that made this a cervical bead on a regular day.

ともかくも日本本土では只幼い者が、遊戯としてしか採り用いなくなったものが、彼方ではずっと後々まで、実地に使われていたというのは意味がある。

In any case, it is meaningful that in the mainland of Japan the little ones who used to play only for play were used in practice until long after.

それで私はツシヤがもと宝貝を糸に貫いて、頸に掛けていた頃の名ではなかったかと思うのである。

So I wonder if it was the name of Tsushiya when he used to thread a broom and put it on his neck.

大小の相異は著しいけれども、植物のツシタマも形状曲線、ことに色沢がよほどよくあの貝に似ている。

Although the difference between the large and small is remarkable, the plant Tsushima is also a shape curve, in particular, the color is very similar to that of the shellfish.

この実は成熟につれて、同じ一つの穂でもだんだんと色あいをかえる。

As this fruit matures, even the same spikelet gradually changes its color.

もしもその取り合わせが、この海の貝の頸飾りの楽しみの一つだったならば、どうせ代用品だから物足らぬにはきまっているが、まず是だけでも一応は気がすんだことであろう。

If that arrangement was one of the fun of this sea shell neck ornament, it would have been a substitute since it was decided, but at first it would seem like it would have been.

ツシヤという名前の、貝より草の実への移行は或いはこういう風にも説明することが出来はすまいか。

The transition from shellfish to grasses, which is named Tsushiya, can be described in this way.

three

(ジャクソン氏の著書より)

(From Mr. Jackson's book)

 是は私たちの謂う一国民俗学の問題ではないが、沖縄諸島のように頸飾りの習俗が久しく伝わり、是に宗教的関心を寄せ続けていた社会において、どうしてまたあのように手近に豊富に産出し、且つあれほどまで美しく、変化の奇をきわめているといってよい宝の貝を、わざと避けたかと思うばかり、利用の外においていたのかということが説明せられねばならぬ。

This is not a problem of our country's folklore, but like the Okinawa islands, the custom of neck ornaments has been transmitted for a long time, and in a society that has kept religious interest, why is it abundant at hand like that again It is necessary to explain whether it was out of use only by thinking that it was deliberately avoided, and that the shellfish of good treasure that are produced so much and so beautiful and that there is a great deal of oddity of change.

或いはあまりにも豊富に過ぎ、珍とするに足りなかったからとも考える人があろうが、さまざまの木の実草の実の、もっと有りふれた物をさえ島人は珠に貫いている。

Or even if you think it's too rich and not enough to be rare, the islanders are sticking to the beads, even the more common things of the fruit of various trees.

察するに是は「織る者は着ず、耕す者は食わず」の古い諺のごとく、島々に分かれ住した貧しく力|微なる人々に取って、みずから愛用すべくあまりにも貴重なる宝の貝であった故に、それを自分の頸飾りにすることのできぬ年月が長かったためであろう。

As the old saying of "Don't wear, we don't eat, Plow does not eat," the poor, the power that divided and lived on the islands, like the old coffins, are treasure shells that are too precious to be loved by ourselves Because it was, it may be because it was a long time that it was not possible to make it your neckline.

今から顧みれば、同じ上代に属するものとも言えるであろうが、かつて金銀のいまだ冶鋳せられず、山が照り耀く石をいまだ掘り出さしめなかった期間、自然に掌上に取り上げられるものとしては、宝貝より目ざましく、あでやかなる物は他になかった。

If you look at it from now on, it may be said that it belongs to the same generation, but as a thing that can be taken up naturally on the palm during the period when the gold and silver have not yet been cast yet and the mountains have not excavated the shining stones. There was no other thing that was more remarkable and brighter than the shellfish.

すなわち強力なる中原の王者は、万策を講じて遠い海の果からこれをたぐり寄せ、或いはまたこれを無形の武器として、洪大なる地域を征服し得たのも、すでに悠々たる三千年以上の昔のことである。

In other words, the powerful Nakahara king, who took all measures to conquer this from the edge of a distant sea, or to conquer this large area as an intangible weapon, has already taken more than three thousand years ago. It is.

この第一期の財宝の原産地が、はたして世界に幾つあったか、私たちはまだ究めることができずにいるが、少なくとも支那で東夷といいまた島夷といった方面において、その最も明らかな痕跡を永く留めたのは沖縄の諸島である。

We have not been able to determine how many of the origins of this first period of treasure were in the world, but at least in the area of China, Dongguan, and islands, we will keep the most obvious traces long It is the islands of Okinawa.

輸送が江淮の間に限られず、供給のますます豊富になって後まで、価値のようやく賤しきを思いつつも、なお莫大なる輸出をしていたのが、この洋上の小王国であった。

It was this small kingdom on the ocean that was still carrying out huge exports, not only between transport and Jiangsu, but also increasingly richer in supply, with a sense of lingering value at last.

久高島のいわゆるミナグルカナイなどは、伊波氏の論文にも詳しく説かれている。

The so-called Minaganukanai of Kudaka Island is also described in detail in the paper by Mr. Inami.

こうして取れた宝貝を、ことごとく公の目途に振り向けた期間が長かったために、本来の用法は忘れられたのであろうか。

Was the original usage forgotten because the period when all the treasures that were taken in this way were diverted to the public aim was long?

あの色々の珍らしい宝石類が手に入って後に、始めて珠を巻く風習がこの島々に起こったものと、解することは何人にもできないのみならず、もしもこの風習がすでに始まっていなかったならば、宝貝の貴とさ美しさを、弘く世の人に知らせることも、おそらくはずっと遅くなっていたであろう。

It is not only that no one can understand that the custom of winding the beads first occurred on these islands after the various rare jewelry were obtained, but if this custom had not already begun For example, it would probably have been a long time to let the people of the world know the noble and beauty of the shellfish.