文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(2333-2356)/3194

 古史の文は、幾たびか読み且つ味わって見なければならぬ。

Old-fashioned sentences have to be read and tasted a few times.

たとえば皇極紀の元年十一月|丁卯(十五日)の条に、天皇御新嘗(……ニハナヒをきこしめす)、又是日皇太子大臣各自新嘗(……ニハナヒしき)とある。

For example, in the Article of the Imperial Year of the Year in November | Din (15th), the Emperor Xinjiang (... is there.

是は霜月下卯の日を用いられた最古の例と認められ、また天皇即位の第一年なるが故に、後世謂うところの践祚大嘗祭のことと思った人もあろうが、もしも是が『延喜式』第七巻に列記せられたような大規模のものだったならば、同じ日に大臣たちが家に退いて、各自の族の祭を営み得るわけがない。

This is recognized as the oldest example of using Shimotsuki Shimpo's Day, and also because it is the first year of the emperor's reign, some people may think of it as the so-called Shii-Oh Festival, but if it is If it was such a large one as listed in Volume 7 of the Enoki style, the ministers would not be able to leave the house on the same day and run a festival of their own tribe.

それよりもさらに大切な問題は、この日の祭の式典は、はたして同じ名をもって呼び得るほどに、民も大御門も似通うていたろうかという点である。

Even more important than that, is whether the people and the Great Gate were similar enough that the ceremony of this day's festival could be called by the same name.

令制以後における公けの新嘗には、少なくとも常人の模すべからざる特色が幾つか有った。

The public Xinjiang after the decree had, at least, some unusual features of the ordinary.

最も見落し難い大きな差別は、皇室が親しく稲作をなされざりしことである。

The biggest discrimination that is most overlooked is that the imperial family is not familiar with rice farming.

供御の料田は十分に備わっていても、それを播き刈る者は御内人ではなかった。

Even though the courts of the temple were fully equipped, those who sowed and cut it were not the rulers.

殊に大新嘗には国中の公田を悠紀・主基に卜定して、その所産をもって祭儀の中心たるべき御飯の料に充てられることになっていた。

In particular, it was decided to set the rice fields throughout the country as the mainland in Daxinjang, and to use it's output as the center for the delicacies to be served at the center of the ritual.

それがいずれの代からの定めかは、政治史の問題に帰着するが、すでに億計・弘計二王子の潜邸の御時にも、伊予の久米部に属する一官人が、大嘗の供物を集めに、播磨の東隅の村まで来たという記事もある。

Although it will come down to the problem of political history whether it is decided from which generation, it is already a billionaires, even at the time of the residence of two princes of Houkei, the one official who belongs to Kume part of Iyo is a captain There are also articles that have come to the village in the east corner of Harima to collect offerings.

これらはとうてい尋常地方に割拠する大小の農場主たちの、企て及ぶところではなかった。

These were far from being planned for large and small farmers, who are based in rural areas.

この点がまずはっきりとちがっている。

First of all, this point is clearly different.

 それよりもさらに重要な差別は、この日に迎え拝せられる神々についての考えかたであったろう。

Even more important discrimination would have been the idea of the gods to be worshiped on this day.

是までの普通の解説では、至尊がその年の新穀をきこしめすに際して、御親ら国内の主要なる神祇を御祭りなされる式典として、疑う者もなかったようだが、もしそれならば是は朝廷の御事業であって、個々の稲耕作者たちの問題でなく、嘗の祭の一般共通性などは、考えてみる余地もないわけである。

In the usual commentary up to this point, it seems that there was no doubt as a ceremony to be made the main gods of the country as a ceremony when the Supreme honored the new grain of the year, but if that is the case, It is a project, and there is no room for thinking about the general commonality of the flea festival, not the problem of individual rice farmers.

神祇という言葉は、今は至って心軽く、範囲を明らかにせずに用いられているが、本来は天神地祇、或いは天社国社と謂ったのも同じで、つまりは斯邦の有りと有る家々に、斎き祀り申す神々の総称というべきものだった。

The word “Kinjyo” is currently used in a very lighthearted manner without clarifying the scope, but originally it was the same as when it was called Tenjinjien, or Tenshakusha, that is, in the homes with the existence of this country. It was supposed to be a generic term for the gods who wish to study.

いかに信心の複雑化した時代でも、個々の一家の力では、なし遂げ得ることではなく、またその必要もなく、権能も有り得なかった。

No matter how complex the times of devotion, the power of each family was not something that could be accomplished, nor was it necessary, nor was there any authority.

すなわちこの点では明らかに、皇室の新嘗が普通とは異なっていたので、我々はまずいつの世から、何によってこうなったかを考えてみなければならぬ。

That is to say, in this regard, since the imperial Shinshu was unusually different, we must first consider from what world, and by what reason.

祭と幣帛の贈進

Tribute to the festival and the bow

 我邦のいわゆる神祇政策が、由来きわめて久しいものであったことは、まず『日本紀』が意識してこれを書き伝えようとしている。

The fact that Japan's so-called Shinto policy was derived from a very long time is, first of all, conscious of "Nonki" and trying to write it down.

皇祖天皇が始めて中つ国に御遷りなされた時には、すでにそれ以前からの来住者の、邑里を成し各々首長を戴いている者が少なくなかった。

When the Emperor Emperor was first made a return to Middle-earth, there were a large number of former residents who had made a puri and had been honoring each chief.

国津神の文化のやや低級であったことは、大祓の祝詞からでも窺われるが、おそらくは語言はほぼ通じ、したがって相互の信仰は理解し得られ、烈しい闘諍をもって統一を期するまでの、必要はなかったかと思われる。

Although the fact that the culture was a little lower in the culture of Kunitsu, it can be said from the confession of Otsuji, but probably the words are almost through, so mutual faith can be understood and understood, and it is necessary to achieve unity with fierce struggle It seems that it was not.

もとより勢力の優劣消長は免れなかったろうが、永い間には縁組その他の交通によって、自然の感化同化が行われ、『延喜式』の時代になると、もう神名以外には対立の痕跡がなく、自他ともにこの差別を感じないようになり、したがって天神地祇という物々しい呼びかたまでが、単なる麗句美辞の類に化してしまった。

The superiority and inferiority of powers would have been inevitable from the beginning, but in the long run the nature and assimilation were carried out by marriage and other traffic, and in the age of the “Enoki style”, there were no signs of conflict other than God's name, Both self and others did not feel this discrimination, and hence the sloppy call of Tenjinjien has turned into a kind of mere revelation.

 しかも他の一方に、この天社国社の差別|撤却、一視同仁の方針のために、夙に制定せられた慣行が幾つかある。

And on the other hand, there are several practices enacted in favor of the company's discrimination |

平安|奠都の前後から、盛に記録に現われる神階の陞叙などは、失政だったと言ってよかろう。

Heian | From before and after the capital city, let's say that the temples on the floor, which appear in the record, were disappointed.

久しからずして極位に達して停止に帰し、いたずらに稲荷の正一位に名残を留めて弊害をさえ生じたが、これに伴のうて設けられた官知の特典と、社格の階段制とは、僅か形を替えて久しく記憶せられ、且つ明治の新政において復活した。

After a long time, he reached an extreme position and returned to a standstill, and left the remnant in Inari's first place without incident, and even had a bad effect, but with the benefits of official knowledge and corporate status provided in connection with this. The stair system was slightly changed and remembered for a long time, and revived in the Meiji era's new government.