文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(2357-2376)/3194

しかし私などの見るところでは、是は主として幣帛供進の方式、またその数量品目の差等を意味したかと思われる。

However, as I see it, it seems that this mainly means the system of profit and loss, and also the difference in the number of items.

世降って恒例臨時の奉幣はしばしば絶え、これにかわって個々の祈願の奉幣のみが競い進んだために、是が第二宗教の法会などと混同して、次第に朝家みずからその祭典を執行わせられるように、速断する人を多くしたのも是非がない。

As the occasional occasional concession often comes to an end, and only the votiveness of individual prayers competes on behalf of this, it is confused with the second religion's law association, etc., and the ceremony is gradually executed from the morning alone There is no point in having many people who are fast-paced, as it is possible.

官祭という言葉の生まれたのも、新しいことではあるまいが、その最初の趣旨はただ官知の祭、かねてその祭の世のために大切なることを認められて、定めの日時に神祇官からなり、または国々の司からなり、恒例の弊物を捧げて参同する者を派遣せられる御定めであったというまでであろう。

The word “Government Festival” was not a new thing, but its first purpose was only to recognize the festival of public knowledge, which was once recognized as important for the world of the festival, Or it would have been a rule of being from a country's director, who was able to send out those who dedicated to his regular offerings.

幣帛はもとより漢語であり、その用法はあちらの古書に数多く見える。

It is a Chinese language from the very beginning, and its usage is seen in many old books there.

本来は主として諸侯の間の財物の贈遺であって、これに由って尊敬または関心の深さを表示するまでの約束はあったろうが、これを祭主に代ってみずから祭儀を掌るものと解するほどの、大きな転換はよもや無かったろう。

Originally it was a gift of the property mainly between the lords, and there would have been a promise to display the depth of respect or interest because of this, but it would be a tribute to the priest in charge of the ceremony. It is unlikely that there will be a major change, as understood.

 ただし日本の幣帛が、後々神事に限られるようになったのは、かかる用法が先に立った故に、他にはその名を憚り避けたと見られる以上に、今一つ特殊の事情が有ったと考えられる。

However, it is believed that there was one more special circumstance than the fact that Japan was later limited to the deity because it was said that this usage came first, and that it was thought that it would be a shame to avoid its name. Be

我々日本人のヌサまたは捧げ物は、出来るかぎり清く汚れなくして、元は最も神の御座に近く進らせんとして、時としては眼に見えぬ霊体の所在を標示する樹枝や斎串の木に、直接に結わえつける習わしがあったらしく、今でも片田舎にはそれが多く見られる。

We Japanese Nusa or offerings should be as clean and unclean as possible, the original being the most close to the throne of God as a progressing helix, sometimes a tree or tree that marks the whereabouts of invisible spirits There seems to be a practice to tie it directly, and it is still seen a lot in the countryside.

花や芒の葉のような自然物を、しでで目じるしとする場合はそうであるまいが、木棉・麻・帛・白紙の類を用いるときには、シデとヌサとは混同し、また時としては兼用せられた。

This is the case when using natural objects such as flowers and mulberry leaves, but when using kiso, hemp, canvas, white paper and the like, the side and the nusa are confused, and again Sometimes it was shared.

紙などは近世得やすくなったので、細く長く剪って垂れて、もっぱらシデの用に供することになったのに、なお二つの境を明らかにし得ず、ゴヘイというような新らしい日本語が生まれて、文字を識る人たちがかえって迷うている。

Paper, etc. became easy to obtain in the modern age, so although it was decided to squeeze long and thin and rip it, and to use it exclusively for the side, it is still impossible to reveal the two boundaries, and a new Japanese language like Gohei It is born, and people who understand the character are rather lost.

殊に迷惑というべきは特殊のミテグラ、すなわち幣帛を取りつけたる斎串が珍重せられて、それをトヨミテグラ、ウヅノミテグラなどと呼んだのが原因となってか、『日本書紀』の傍訓が幣帛をミテグラと読ましめたのを始めに、平安初期の書言家が揃ってこの対訳を認め、それを訝る者が誰もいなかったために、信じにくい語原説が近年まで続出している。

In particular, it should be noted that the special Mitigra, or the Sakai to which we have attached the Samurai, is extravagant, and it is caused by calling it Toyomitegra, Uenonometegra, etc. In the beginning, the early Heian lyricists all accepted this parallel translation, and since there was no one who scolded it, the unreliable word theory has continued to appear in recent years.

古人は過誤せずと思い、また漢語で書いたものはみな正しいとすることは、ことに『万葉』から『古今』『後撰』へかけての百年間あまりが危険である。

It is dangerous for old people to think that they do not make mistakes and to assume that everything written in Chinese language is correct, in particular, for a hundred years from "Manyo" to "old age" and "back".

この期間は日本最近の一世紀と同じく、外国の文学に心を傾け過ぎて、国語の変遷を御留守にした時代であった。

This period, like the last century in Japan, was a time when we focused on foreign literature and made the transition of the national language into an absence.

今度の研究会の計画には別の趣旨もあろうが、この点に新たに注意することは、殊に一般の学問のための、かなり強い警策であろうと思う。

There will be other intentions in the plans of the forthcoming research group, but I think that the new attention to this point will be a fairly strong security, especially for general studies.

世に伝わらぬ旧儀

Old style that can not be transmitted to the world

 朝廷の大嘗に天神地祇を御祭りなされるということを、始めて公けに明示したのは、もし私が誤っておらぬならば、職員『令義解』の神祇官の条に、「大嘗謂嘗新穀以祭神祇也、朝者諸神之相嘗祭、夕者供新穀於至尊也」とあるのがそれかと思われる。

It was the first time to publicly state that the Tenjin Earth Festival was to be made public in the Imperial Court of the Imperial Court, if I was not making a mistake, in the article of the deity officer of the official order, It is thought that it is said that the so-called 嘗 new grain later deity 祇, morning 諸 神 嘗 、, 嘗 者 穀 至.

この神祇は勿論天神地祇であって、ある定まった大神のことをいうのではない。

This Goddess, of course, is the Tenjinji Temple, not a certain fixed God.

天武天皇紀の五年十月丁酉の条に、「奉幣帛於相嘗新嘗諸神祇」とあったのが、中間僅か一百五十年余のほどに変移して、まず「嘗」という語の語感が改まった。

The article of "Commitment at the Sumo Shingo Moroshin" in the Tengu Emperor's Five-Year-October-Districted Article was shifted to the middle of only about one hundred and fifty years in the middle, The word sense of has been revised.

嘗はキコシメス、すなわち天子に今年の稲穀を初めてさし上げることだったのが、爰ではそれを中心とした前後一切の行事を謂うようになっており、次には幣帛を国内の諸社に送ることまでを、祭と誌して怪しまぬようになってしまったのである。

It was to introduce rice grain to Kikosemis, ie Ako, for the first time this year, but in the case of rice, it is supposed to call all events before and after it. It was not possible to doubt that it was a festival to be sent to

「祭」という漢字は、その本国においては、今古を一貫して地の神の奉祀を意味する語であった。

In its home country, the kanji "Festival" has consistently been used to mean the dedication of the earth's god.

それを我邦のみは敬祭という語も古く、一切のマツリ、マツラフワザに宛てて用いることになったのも、おそらくはこの誤解の導きであろう。

It is probably the guidance of this misunderstanding that it was only in Japan that the word "respect" was also used in Japan, and it was supposed to be used for all Matsuri and Matsuurafusa.