文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(2395-2418)/3194

土地の言葉ではそれを何と謂ったか、わかると有益なのだが今はまだ方法がない。

It is useful to know what it means in the language of the land, but there is no way yet.

ともかくもその祭の日は、朝家の儀典と同じ季節の、同じ日でないまでもその前後で、少しく発遣の日をくり上げると、賜わった弊物が間に合って、一段と祭を感深く且つうれしいものとなし得たので、これに対して一方の新嘗祭当日の案上案下の幣は、各々の社の祭には間に合わず、ただ朝廷が顧念なされるという主義だけを、明らかにする目的にもっぱらだったためか、他の多くの例幣の物と同じく、いつまでも頂戴に出てこぬ者が多くて、追々に処理に困られることになったらしい。

Anyway, the day of the festival is the same season as the morning's house, and before or after the same day, if you round up the day of sending a little, the haunted products will be in time, and you will feel more about the festival and On the other hand, on the other hand, the draft money on the day of the New Year's Festival is not in time for each company's festival, but for the purpose of clarifying only the principle that the court will be considered. Perhaps because it was all the same, as with many other money items, there were many people who didn't come out for a long time, and it was said that they would be troubled with the process.

地方に新嘗と同種の祭があったことだけは、この方面からでもおおよそ推定することができるのである。

Only the fact that there was a festival of the same kind as Xinjiang in the region can be roughly estimated from this direction.

 七十一座の神々に進らする相嘗祭への弊物に、種目数量の若干の異同があったことは、何かそれぞれの理由が有ったはずだが、それを攷えてみる力は今の私にはない。

The fact that there was some difference in the number of items in the product to the sumo festival to advance to the gods of the Seventy-one House would have had each reason for some, but the power to see it is It is not for me now.

ただ一つ注意をせずにおられぬのは、この中には布帛・食品・器具等のほかに、酒の稲五斗または一石というまでも備わっておりながら、ただ御飯に炊く稲一種のみはいずれにも見えない。

The only thing that can not be avoided is that, in addition to cloth, food, utensils, etc., there are rice rice fiveo or single stone of sake, but only one kind of rice that cooks for rice. I can not see anything.

是だけは恐らくそれぞれの社に属する神田から刈り上げて、必ずその祭の用に宛てるだけでなく、いわゆる相嘗の貴とい役に奉仕する神主たちも、元は必ずその田を管理した戸主、郷長または人このかみと呼ばれるような、一定の農民の中から出ていたものと思う。

This is probably the headmaster who always managed the field, not only to reap from Kanda belonging to each company, but to not only address it for the festival but also to serve the role of so-called sumo wrestlers. I think that they came from a certain farmer who was called the mayor or man.

天が下の田をことごとく公田とする原則は久しく動かなかったけれども、それとても制定の始めがあった。

The principle that the sky has made all the fields below has not moved for a long time, but it has had its very beginning.

畏れ多い推定ながら、天の長田というような大切な稲栽培地が皇室にも属していて、年々の斎田を卜定なされる必要はない時代が遠い昔にはあり、いわゆる大新嘗は後代の各地の相嘗と、もう少し近いものだったのではあるまいか。

It is a long time ago when precious rice cultivation areas such as Heavenly Nagada belong to the imperial family and there is no need to set up the annual Saida, while so many estimations are made. I wonder if it was a bit closer with the Sumo wrestler.

二つの祭の殿を並べ構えることは、朝廷の大新嘗の著しい特徴であるが悠紀が斎忌を意味し、主基が第二のものの名だったとすると、最もまた天地陰陽二極の思想に基づいて、制度として新たに設けられたものではなかったろうか。

The arrangement of the two festival halls is a remarkable feature of the Daishinjo of the Imperial Court, but if Yuki means Saiki and the main group is the name of the second one, the thought of Tenji Yin Bipolar It may not have been newly established as a system based on

それが軽々に断定すべきものでないとすれば、結局この一点のみが、問題として永く残ることになるであろう。

If that were not something to be decided lightly, then only this one point would last as a problem.

稲実公の任務

Inami's mission

 嘗に該当する稲収穫後の祭典が、尋常|民庶の間にも行われていたことは、これを疑わんとする者も無いだろうが、それがいかなる範囲に及び、また今日もなお保存せられているか否かの問題になると、尋究の余地は弘く残り、解決は必ずしも容易でない。

There is no doubt that this post-harvest celebration of rice, which falls under firewood, has been carried out among folk songs, but there is no doubt that this will extend to any extent, even today. When it comes to the question of preservation, there is still room for inquiry and resolution is not always easy.

一つの手がかりは「にひなめ」またはニフナミ等という旧来の日本語の隠れたる意味と、是を暗示するかと思われる国外の稲作諸民族の習俗の類似であるが、それにも今はまだ乗り越えにくい幾つかの難関があって、微細に農民の生活を観察比較する私たちの学問に、割当てられた任務は小さくない。

One clue is similar to the hidden meaning of the traditional Japanese language of "Hiname" or Nifnami etc. and the customs of foreign rice farming tribes who seem to imply that it is still difficult to overcome now There are several obstacles, and the task assigned to our study of observing and comparing farmers' lives finely is not small.

たとえば『延喜式』巻七は、践祚大嘗祭の朝儀の最古最精確の現存記録であるが、この中にはすでに翌年播種の種子に対する心遣い、すなわち私たちの謂おうとする稲の産屋の式作法が些しも見えない。

For example, "Engishiki" vol.7 is the oldest and most accurate extant record of the morning sun of Jingmyo Festival, but there is already a concern for the seeds sown in the next year, ie the ceremony of the rice barn we want to call I can not see the manners.

凡そ抜穂は卜部、国郡司以下及び雑色人等を率ゐて田に臨んで之を抜く。

After a while, they headed out to the field with the help of Ayabe, Kuni Gunji and less and miscellaneous people.

――先づ初抜四束を取つて供御の飯に擬し、自余は皆黒白二酒に擬す 云々

-First of all take the first four bunches and imitate them as a serving rice, and all your self will imitate black and white two sakes.

とあって、少なくとも京都の斎場へ輸送する稲束の中には、種子に宛てらるべきものは認められていない。

So, at least some of the rice bundles that are transported to Kyoto's Kyoto area are not allowed to be directed to seeds.

是は嘗と呼ばれた隣邦古代の祭がその通りであって、始めからこれに依られたものか。

Is that the ancient festival of the neighboring country, called Zen, is that true, and has it been relied upon from the beginning?

ただしはまた斎田卜定の制があって、朝家親しく田を営みたまわぬために、自然に是が重要視せられなくなったものか。

However, there is also a system of Saida Seidai, and in the morning, it is not important to take care of nature in order to keep the family close to the field.

ともかくも古い形のままではなかったと思われる。

It seems that it was not in the old form anyway.

 伊勢のいわゆる神嘗の御祭にも、抜穂の式は厳重に行われているが、此方は斎田が至近の地にあり、これを佃くる者も神人であった。

At the so-called sacred shrine festival of Ise, the ceremony of Kiboshi is strictly carried out, but Saita is in a place near to Saita, and those who crawl it are also gods.

近年はともかくとしても、古くこの田の籾種はいかに管理していたろうか。

In any case in recent years, how old were the rice seed species managed?

それが判ると参考になるのだが、今はまだそこまでは手が及ばない。

It will be helpful if you understand that, but now it is too late to get there.

御代始めの大新嘗の朝儀が確立してからでも、二百余年の間には沿革は無かったとは言われず、またその痕跡かと思われるものが、『延喜式』の中にはまだ存していて、それも後には次第に消え去っている。

It is not said that there has been no history for more than two hundred years after the establishment of the morning ceremony of Daishinjo in the beginning of your generation, and what seems to be its trace is still in the "Enoki style" It exists, and it also fades away later.