文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

海上の道:柳田國男(2442-2455)/3194

米が新年の儀礼に参与した重要性は、都府上流の蓬莱と呼ばれた三方飾りから、土佐の朝山、京都附近の山棚、または多くの農村の年桶・年の鉢までを一貫して、稲の実を、欠くべからざるものとしていたことからも窺われるが、もともと農を営まぬ人々の間に始まった正月の慣習なるが故に、その用途は次第に食饌の方に片より、籾が玄米となりまた白米となり、※米とさえなったうえに、餅の大きな改良によって、是が中心の地位を占める時代が来て、この民族の歴史にとって、最も重要であったニヒナメの信仰が、また一段と究め難くなったのである。

The importance of rice participating in the New Year's ritual is consistent from the three-way decoration called the Samurai of the upper reaches of the city to the Asayama of Tosa, the mountain shelf near Kyoto, or the pottery of many rural annuals and years. Therefore, although it is said that rice seeds have been rendered inconsequential, its use has gradually come to the food side, as it is the New Year's custom that began among people who did not practice farming. The rice has become brown rice and white rice, and has become a white rice, and it has become even rice ※ ※ by the great improvement of the rice has come to the era of predominate position, the most important to the history of this nation is the Niinamei faith that was most important It became harder to find it again.

ただ我々の学問にとって、一つの幸いといってもよいのは、年俵を祭の中心とした正月の儀式が、今はまだ国中の片田舎に、飛び飛びに遺り伝わっている。

However, one fortunate thing about our study is that the New Year's ritual, which is the center of the festival, is still passing away to the countryside of the country.

前に信濃川流域のスヂ俵について一言したように、是ただ一筋の伝承の明らかに尋ね求められる御蔭に、独り農民の理論なき保守主義が、一通り解説し得られるのみでなく、さらに進んでは上古以来の厳重なる農作の朝儀、すなわち祈年と新嘗との二つの祭の、漢字採用以前の関係が、ふたたびはっきりとしてくるように、私には考えられる。

As I mentioned earlier about the river basin of the Shinano River basin, it is not only a single pianist's theory of conservatism without a theory can be explained and obtained, as well as a clear explanation of only one line of tradition. It is thought to me that, as it goes on, the strict farming practices since ancient times, that is, the relationship before the adoption of kanji in the two festivals of the year of prayer and Xinjiang, will be clear again.

アエノコトの要点

Main points of Aenokoto

 単なる字義の上からの推定でも、祈年祭が国家の公の祭となったのは、他の一方よりは早かったかと思われる。

Even if it is simply estimated from the top of the word, it seems that it was earlier that the annual prayer festival became a public festival of the nation than the other.

一つの願掛けをもって始まり、一つの御礼申しをもって終結するというような一回ごとの交渉は、無始の昔からの信頼に根ざした、いわゆる固有宗教の教理とは合致せぬのみならず、また現に我々の体験するところの多数無名の氏神社の通有性とも一致しない。

One-on-one negotiations, such as starting with a single request and ending with a single thank-you, are not only inconsistent with the doctrine of so-called indigenous religions rooted in unreliable long-standing trust, but also It is not consistent with the common nature of many unknown Mr. Shrines where we experience.

殊に一部の稲実の聖別ということは、来るべき生産の上から見れば、最も重要なる発端でありまた開始であって、御代始めの新嘗をとくに荘重に執行わせられた最初の御趣旨も、また爰にあったかと思われる。

In particular, the sanctification of some rice crops is the most important starting point and starting point from the viewpoint of the coming production, and it is the first to be particularly carefully executed in the beginning of Xinjiang. It seems that your purpose was also in the coffin.

しかるにトシを稲作の一期を劃する言葉だったと知りつつも、いわゆる正朔の統一にはなお外国の前例を追い、輸入の暦法ばかりを唯一の知識としたために、中央ではまず年の境が農業と縁遠く、「にひなめ」はただ前年のあと始末のごとく、考えられるようになってきたが、もとは此方が大切な生活の出発点であり、二月の年乞いはかえってその後に続くべき、第二の式であったかも知れないのである。

However, while knowing that Toshi was a term that overthrows a period of rice cultivation, the border of the year is first in the middle, as the foreign calendar is still in pursuit of so-called regular unity and only the import calendar law is the only knowledge. Far from agriculture, "Hiname" has come to be considered just like the end of the year after the end of the previous year, but the former is the starting point of important life, and the yearly gain in February is later on It may have been the second formula to follow.

 そうも想像せられる一つの根拠は、いよいよ暦本が弘く国内に行き渡り、これを読解く者が辺土の村里にも出てくるようになると、かつては農家の新嘗に属したかと思わるる幾つかの行事が、転じて彼らの正月慣例の、容易に省略し難いものを構成している。

One reason that can be imagined is that when the calendar book finally spreads around the country and people who read it come out to village villages in the ecto, it seems that it once belonged to the farmer's new farm Several events, in turn, constitute an easy-to-omit omission of their New Year convention.

我々のいわゆる民間暦なるものが、新たに中央に起こった正月制に支配せられ、妥協し服従しまた後退し去ったのは、勿論そう古くからの変化ではあるまいが、もしそうだとするとその古来のものが、存外に久しい後までも、持続していたことは感歎に値する。

Our so-called civil calendars are, of course, dominated by the new Central New Year, and it is not, of course, an old change that compromises, obeys and retreats, but if it were so, its ancient times It is worth noting that the things that have been sustained have long lasted.

新らしい今年藁をもって念入りに俵を編み、それに次の苗代の種籾を入れて、年越にはそれを床の前、神棚の下、または大黒柱の根もととか、臼柱の片脇の臼の上とかに積み上げて、それに緑の松を立てて年神様の来訪を迎えようとするなどはその一つであり、さらにその俵の種籾を、必要量よりは何倍か多く、余分はことごとく初田植の日の祭の供物、働く人々の晴の食料に宛てるべく、予ねて用意して年神の祭壇を豊かにし、且つは祭に仕える者の心を楽しくしようとしたなども、いずれも新制の正月を採用するに際して、新たに思い構えた趣向であったとは考えられない。

We will weave a new yearly rattan carefully and put a seedling of the next nursery and put it in front of the floor, under the shelf, at the bottom of the main branch, or at the base of the acetabulum. One of them is to build green pines on top of it and try to receive the visit of the year god, and furthermore, the number of seeds of the persimmon is several times more than necessary, and all extras He also prepared and prepared the altar of the annual god in order to address the offering of the festival of the day of Hatsuda and the fine food of the working people, and also tried to enjoy the hearts of those serving the festival, It can not be considered that they were new ideas for adopting a new year.

是らの斎稲の相嘗の日はずっと遅くなり、したがってまた初穂とは呼び難いようだが、是は収穫の際から特に取り分けて、常用のものとは別にしてあった。

The day of Sumida's Sumo wrestling is much later, so it seems to be difficult to call it a first ear, but it has been kept apart from those commonly used, especially from the time of harvest.

そうして『延喜式』の本文の稲実斎屋も同じように、その管理には特別の心遣い、言葉には現わさぬ信仰を伴のうていたのである。

And so, as in the case of Inami-sai-ya in the text of Engi-style, there was a special concern for its management, and a faith that was not revealed in the words.

 右の年俵またスヂ俵の慣習は、今は新年の作法に移されたものが多いが、稀には今もなお霜月の祭の日に、同じ形のものを保存している例がある。

Although there are many cases in which the right annual salary and the custom of Suji are now transferred to the New Year's etiquette, there are rare cases in which there are still examples of preserving the same shape on the day of the festival of frost month. is there.