『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。



Of course, the place name of Ainu is not written by Mr. Nagata.


However, it is extremely small even if it is allotted to that large area, and there are surprising similarities and duplications among them.


On the contrary, the number of place names in the inland area is hundreds of times higher than that.


Aside from the name of Yamakawa, such as how many mountains and how many rivers, the number of so-called new towns and villages is not only the name given to a certain area There are 12,000 towns and villages with large and small villages, but there are about 190,000 according to the table in 1891.


In addition, there are about 10,000 large cities such as Tokyo and Kyoto.


The large village of 190,000 on the right is the former village, which is further divided into letters.


In general terms, there are no more than one hundred villages in most villages, and at least thirty forty villages.


Even assuming an average of fifty, there are about one million characters nationwide.


Below that letter, there are small letters in some regions.


There are also five or six in each letter.


Or there are more places.


In addition, there are regions where small letters are called middle letters, and there are about ten small letters below them.


The number of these place names will of course be proportional to the size of the population.


It is said that there are virtually unexplored areas in Hokkaido today, but even in the inland area, even the peak of Mt. Fuji belongs to one of the large villages.


Therefore, there are so many.


But there must still be another strong reason.


Needless to say, this is the state of land use.


For example, people who are not engaged in the settlement industry do not have to divide the land, so even if the naming of the land is based on the need of living, those who use the land only for the purpose of hunting, harvesting or travel for that purpose. The need to have a place name is just for the purpose.


It is all right if you distinguish the land of A and the land of Otsu.


Contrary to this, it becomes necessary for those who are more engaged in regular occupations, such as those engaged in forestry and agriculture, to give detailed geographical names and remember them.


Therefore, the second thing to consider is the complexity of the purpose of naming.


For example, if one person goes to the same Tachikawa Ochiai to go out for hunting, he may give it a simple name such as Kawai or Kawamata.


Even if the idea of numbers is added to this, the names such as Ichinozawa and Ninomata will be used.


Also, when the observation power becomes a little more detailed, it is enough to pay attention to the plants and trees around it and give the name of Sanbonmatsu or Uluizawa.


If it goes to the next stage and burns charcoal, lime, etc., that's not enough, or the names such as charcoal-burning pond, Haitani, and Nananosuke | Kana are added.


Next, when Gonbei came to make a switching field, the names such as Gonbei Kiri, Gonji-making, Gonga | Yabu will come up.


In order to cross the river, I first walk in the water, but since it is inconvenient, I build a bridge.


That is, the new place name is Hashimoto, Shibabashi because it is on the side of the bridge.


One day, a horse fell from Shibabashi and died.


Furthermore, when retired retirees and priests retired and started drinking tea and drinking it, the villagers finally got the name "Kangetsukei," which makes no sense for the autumn leaves.


Among them, people's desire gathered from a combination of various causes or a new name was gathered, or the old name was still remembered. In terms of the ability of the geographer to immediately recognize the meaning of the place name, it was far from the North Korean compatriots, and it was criticized as a person who lacked the talent to discriminate the properties of objects. It depends on the situation.


▽ What is a place name? To begin with, it is a code used jointly by two or more people.