文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

地名の研究:柳田國男(353-389)/3905

これがために地名は大多数は消えてしまった。

Because of this, most place names have disappeared.

少なくも公けのものではなくなった。

It's not at least public.

我々が本籍住所の表示には法規上大字より小さい地名は不用である。

We do not require a place name smaller than a large letter to display our permanent address.

将来このままで進んで行くならば小さい地名はおいおいに忘れられてしまうであろうと思う。

I think that small place names will be greatly forgotten if we continue to do so in the future.

 ここまで考えて来ると、明治十七年前後に内務省で集めた『郡村誌』という地名集はたとい揃ってはいないでも非常に貴重な文明史の材料を包含しているものと言わねばならぬ(註、本資料の現存せぬことについては後文に見ゆ)。

If we think so far, it must be said that the collection of place names called "Korimura magazine" collected by the Ministry of Home Affairs around the Meiji 17th year contains very valuable materials of civilization history, though it is not complete. (Note, see below for what does not exist in this material).

この地名集は三四百冊もある。

This place name collection has 340 volumes.

内務省から内閣文庫へ移り、ただ今は文科大学の保管に属している。

Moved from the Ministry of Interior to the Cabinet Library, and now belongs to the archives of Bunka University.

小字のある町村は小字まで、ない町村は字まで網羅してある。

Towns and villages with small letters cover up to the small letters, and towns and villages without small letters cover the letters.

日本の半分ほどしかない。

There is only about half of Japan.

大冊三四百であるゆえに見る人が少なく少々虫が食べていてしかも複本がない。

Since it is a large book of 400, it is rarely seen and eats by a few insects, and there are no duplicates.

予は地学協会の幹部の方々に対し深く望むところがある。

I have deep hopes for the executives of the Geographical Society.

ただしたいていお察しでもあろうからくどくはいわぬ。

However, I don't think it's frustrating because it's usually guessed.

 字の地名は小字に比べるとはるかに永い寿命があろうと思う。

I think that the place name of a character will have a much longer life than a small character.

何となれば字の地名は最も多く我々の生活と結合しているからである。

Because the place name of the character is most associated with our life.

農業に従事する者はもちろん農をやめて教員なり役場吏員なりになっても、朝夕の会話に用いる必要が多く、どうしても忘れることはできまい。

Even if people who are engaged in agriculture quit farming and become teachers or government officials, they often need to be used for morning and evening conversations, and they cannot be forgotten.

他町村人に対しては新町村の村の名をもって住所を現わしても村中では字すなわち各自の組または坪の名を唱えている。

For other towns and villages, even if an address appears with the name of the new town, the characters in the village are chanted, that is, the name of each group or tsubo.

字にも新町村のいわゆる大字を除いて、古くから大字・中字と二段にした旧町村もあった。

Except for the so-called large letters of new towns and villages, there were also old towns and villages that had been doubled into large letters and middle letters from old times.

しかしこの中字はほかの地方の小字であって、その下の小字は実は小字のさらに分れたものである。

However, this middle letter is a sub-letter of other regions, and the sub-letter below it is actually a subdivision of the sub-letter.

従って昔大字と言ったのは今の字に当るのである。

Therefore, what used to be said to be in large letters corresponds to what it is today.

この字の中にもよく見ると二種ある。

If you look closely in this letter, there are two types.

一つは枝郷・出村のごとき半独立体で他の一つは純然たる一村の区劃の字である。

One is a semi-independent body such as Esato and Demura, and the other is the pure character of one village.

二十三年に市町村制を布いた前にも地方によっては村の合併をなし、以前の一村を大字としたが、それが再度新町村に合併するときには元の村を大字とした。

Before the establishment of the municipal system in 23, some villages had merged into some villages, and the former one village was made into a large letter, but when it was merged into a new town again, the original village was made into a large letter.

これらの字または枝郷などは地名の研究上には村と同じに取り扱ってよろしい。

These characters or Esato may be treated as villages in the study of place names.

今一種の字は純然たる区劃用の命名であるから、命名の動機は往々相違があり得るのである。

The motivation for naming can often be different, since a type of character is now purely descriptive.

しかしこれとても永い年月の間には部落の盛衰に伴なって字の小地名が一村の名になり、または昔の郷・荘の大地名がわずかに一小地域に残るようなこともあろうから一概には言われぬ。

However, over the years, the name of a small village became the name of a village due to the rise and fall of Buraku, or the name of the old town and villa remained slightly in a small region. I wouldn't say it because it would be.

がとにかく荘園の時代からこれを良いほどの大きさに分けてあたかも今の大字内の字に当る区劃があった。

Anyway, since the era of the manor, there was a division that divided this into a size of good size and it was as if it were within the current large letters.

そうしてそれに一々の地名があったゆえに、今日の字の地名にもこれを承継したものが段々あるのである。

Then, because each of them had a place name, there are many inherited place names today.

昔の開墾では右の小区劃を多くはミョウまたはナ(名)といった。

In the old settlement, many of the small areas on the right are called Myo or Na.

始めての原野に入り込んで開発する者は、名の区劃地に一々当てるだけの在来の地名を知らぬから、しばしば下受開墾人の名乗をその地名に用い、国光名、利光名、徳富名、五郎丸名などとした。

Those who enter the wilderness for the first time and develop it do not know the conventional place name that only hits the ward of the name, so often the name of the underdeveloped person is used as the place name, Kunimitsu name, Tomitsu name, Tokutomi First name, Goromaru name.

今日人名のような村名のあるのは昔の名が一村になったもので、後にその地に住んだ名主はまたその居住地名を家号にしたために、人の名乗のような苗字ができたのである。

Today there is a village name like a person's name because the old name became a village, and the owner who lived in that place later changed the name of the place of residence to a family name. Was done.

広い荘園では一名が今の一村にもなったが、通例は今少し狭く一人の武士が下受開墾をする区域は、馬の二頭に家来の十二三人も養えれば良いのであるから、多くは十町歩内外、ちょうど今日の字の少し大きいくらいのものであったろうと思う。

In a large manor, one person has become one of the current villages, but it is now a little narrower now, and the area where one samurai cultivates a submarine should be able to support two horses as well as twelve companions. Therefore, I think that most of them were in the Tomachi area and outside, just a little larger than today's characters.

近世の武士はなかなかそんなことで生活はできなかったのだが、戦国時代には田地の二百町もあれば大名で、何十人という武士と何百人という足軽とを養っていた。

Although modern samurai couldn't live their life due to such a thing, in the Warring States period, there were 200 towns in the fields, and there were daimyo, and they cultivated dozens of samurai and hundreds of Ashigaru.

もっとも飛び飛びに二名三名を持つ者も多かったが、一つの名は西国地方などではごく小さなものであったとみえる。

There were many people who had two or three people, but it seems that one name was very small in the western regions.

肥前などには村の字を何々名という地方がある。

In Hizen and other places, there are regions with village names.

 郷というのはもと荘に対する郷で、荘園に対して国領を意味した言葉である。

≪Sato is a town for Motosou, and is a word that means a national territory for a manor.

しかるに後には荘園の一区通例は名というべき地域を郷と呼ぶようになり、何荘の何郷といった例がある。

Later, however, the customary ward of the manor began to call the region known as the township, and there are examples of what township and what township.

『伊達家文書』に見えた仙台領にはこれが多い。

This is often found in the Sendai territory that appeared in the "Date family document."