文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

地名の研究:柳田國男(2929-2962)/3905

吉田博士の辞書にけだし水源涸渇の渓頭の謂ならんとある。

In Dr. Yoshida's dictionary, there is what is known as the head of the water depletion.

これが一説である。

This is one theory.

この説の事実と合わぬことは二三箇所の地図を見ても分るのみならずサワとはもとより水ある谷のことである。

What does not match the facts of this theory is not only the fact that you can see by looking at the maps of a few places, but also that there are water and valleys with water.

吉田氏はまた『東鑑』の桂井は枯井の形誤かと言われたが誤りとすればむしろ軽井の写し損じかも知れぬ。

Mr. Yoshida was also told that Katsui in the "Tokan" was a typo of Karui, but if it were an error, it might be a failure to copy Karui.

『倭名鈔』の郷名に葛例または嘉礼があるというが、この類例は今日は多くは佳例川・嘉例川などと川の字を伴ないて存しかえって涸渓の説に背いている。

It is said that there are Katsura or Karei in the place name of "Wana Meishin", but these examples often go against the theory of Yukei because they are often associated with the rivers such as Karegawa and Karegawa.

嘉例沢、佳例川等が果して軽井沢と同じ語の変化なるか否かはまだ疑いがあるがこちらにはまた別の説明がある。

It is still doubtful whether Kaebsawa, Kaebagawa, etc. will change the same word as Karuizawa, but here is another explanation.

最も奇抜なるは『新撰陸奥風土記』一に、陸前|遠田郡黒岡という村の山中に鰈魚沼がある。

The most unusual is "Shinsen Mutsu Fudoki", and there is a bonito fish swamp in the mountains of Rikuzen|Kurooka, Toda-gun.

鰈魚はもと海中の魚で沼ではここのみに産するゆえとある。

This is because bonito fish are originally found in the sea and are found only here in swamps.

おそらくは地名があって後に起った伝説だろうと思うが陸奥南津軽郡浪岡村大字|王余魚沢を始めとして王余魚の地名は羽後その他にもあった。

Probably there is a place name and it is a legend that came later, but it is in Nanami-mura, Mutsu Minami Tsugaru-gun.

次には岩代|耶麻郡|月輪村大字山潟の支村には餉沢新田がある。

Next is Iwashiro | Yama-gun | Tsukiwa Village.

この宛字からは山路の側に清水などの出る地で、旅人が餉を認めた場処などという説が起りそうだ。

From this address, it seems that there is a place where Shimizu and the like appear on the side of the mountain road, and where the traveler acknowledges the gyoza.

同国北会津郡|門田村大字|御山の乾飯沢なども、今ではホシイイザワと訓ませているが、元はカレイザワかも知れず、現に田に注ぐわずかの水流に、八幡太郎義家|乾飯を洗ったという口碑を存している。

Kitaaizu-gun, Kadota-mura, Oyama, Imaizawa, etc. are now being taught as Hoshiizawa, but it may have been Kaleizawa, but in the slight stream of water actually pouring into the field, Hachimantaro Yoshiie | Washed the rice I have a memorial.

しかも軽井沢という地名が東日本に限られているに反して、嘉例川の類は全国に弘く存し、奥州でも北陸でも二種並び存しているのを見ると相似たる地名ながら関係はないのかも知れぬ。

Moreover, despite the fact that the name of Karuizawa is limited to eastern Japan, it seems that Karegawa's species are widespread all over the country, and there are two similar species in Oshu and Hokuriku, but they are not related to each other. I don't know.

『静岡県方言辞典』によれば、かの県内のいずれの地方かでは、崖のことをガレといい、また渓川に沿える細路をばカレというそうだ。

According to the "Shizuoka dialect dictionary", the cliff is called "gare" in any of the prefectures, and the narrow road along the river is called "bare".

ただカレイがカルイと転訛することは、どうもあり得べくも思われぬ。

However, it is unlikely that Karei will transgress with Karui.

 しからば軽井沢の元の意味いかんと言うと、自分はカルウと言う動詞の連体言カルイであろうと思う。

――In terms of Karuizawa's original meaning, I think that I would be Karui, a verb adjunct Karui.

カルウは普通の辞典には見えぬが背負うという意味の中古の俗言である。

Karu is a used slang word that means you can't see it in an ordinary dictionary but carry it on your back.

九州には今も用いられているが、一地方のみの方言ではないらしい。

It is still used in Kyushu, but it seems that it is not a dialect of only one region.

有働良夫氏の話に肥後の菊池では村民の不都合な者を排斥することを「燗鍋かるわせる」という。

According to Mr. Yoshio Yuto, in Kikuchi, Higo, it is said that the inconvenient ones of the villagers are banished.

すなわち炊具一つ負わせて居村を追い出すことだ。

In other words, let's get rid of Imura with one cook.

樋口勇夫氏は筑後久留米領で、乞食をツウカルイすなわち笈負いというと私に教えられた。

Yukio Higuchi was taught to me in the Chikugo Kurume territory that the beggar was Tsuukarui.

察するところカルウはカラム・カラグなどと語原を同じくし、縄の類で背に結い附けることであろう。

It seems that Karu has the same word origin as Karam Karag and can be attached to the back with ropes.

江戸でも以前物を背負う労役者を軽子と呼んでいたことは、牛込の軽子坂などの例が示している。

In Edo as well, workers who carried things on their backs were called karuko, as shown by the examples of Karushizaka in Ushigome.

『言海』にカルコは簀の種類で軽籠の義なるべく、これをもって物を運ぶゆえに人をもまたカルコといったのだろうとあるが、単にカルイ子とも解せられぬことはない。

In "Kotomi", Calco is a kind of cage, and it is supposed to be a Karuko because it carries goods with it as if it is a light basket, but it cannot be understood simply as Karuiko.

長門|阿武郡川上村字三荷カルイ、羽後仙北郡淀川村大字中淀川字|殻笈沢などの例も幾分右の想像を助けるようだ。

Nagato|Sankar Karui, Kawakami Village, Abu-gun, Nakayodogawa, Yodogawa Village, Ugo-Senboku-gun|Karasawazawa seems to help the imagination on the right.

峠路の取掛りにこの地名の起った事由は、つまりその地までは馬の背で荷物を運び来たり、それより上は馬が通わぬゆえ、その荷を小さく解き分け人の背で山を越す支度をするために、自然に足溜りとなり村里なども起立したので、同じ碓氷の東麓にもある坂本の宿、古くは郷名にも存する坂梨(坂足の約)、さては馬返しという休茶屋のごとき、いずれもこの事情のためにできた地名である。

The reason why the name of this place happened to work on the pass is that the load of the horse is carried to the place by the back of the horse, and the horse cannot pass above it, so the load is divided and the mountain is set at the back of the person. In order to prepare for the move, the foothills naturally formed and villages and other villages stood up, so Sakamoto's inn at the eastern foot of Usui, Sakanashi (about Sakagashi), also known as the town name, and Mabagae, a resting cafe. All of these are place names created for this reason.

岩代河沼郡|片門村の支村|軽沢が、越後街道を挟んで十三戸山下に住し、寛文中まで別村であったこと(新編会津風土記)、陸前|加美郡小野田村の軽井沢が、七百|米内外の二つの山の間にあって羽前との境山に近く、旧藩時代に番所を置かれたこと(仙台封内風土記)などを考え合わすべきである。

Iwashiro Kawanuma County|Katamon Village Branch Village|Karusawa lived under 13 Sannoheyama across the Echigo Highway and was a separate village until Kanbunchu (Aizu Fudoki) However, it should be considered that it was located between two mountains inside and outside the US, close to the boundary with Uzen, and that a guard station was set up during the era of the former clan (Sendai Enshi Fudoki).

 このついでに一言したいのは軽井沢と田代という地名との関係である。

What I would like to add to this is the relationship between Karuizawa and the place name Tashiro.

この二地がしばしば相接してあることはよもや偶合ではあるまい。

It is no coincidence that the two places are often in contact with each other.

たとえば、

For example,

伊豆田方郡|函南村大字軽井沢

Izugatakata-gun|Kanan Village

同 同  同  大字田代

Same, same, large character Tashiro

岩代大沼郡東川村大字軽井沢

Karuizawa, Higashikawa-mura, Onuma-gun, Iwashiro

同 同  同  大字田代

Same, same, large character Tashiro