文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

地名の研究:柳田國男(2963-2997)/3905

羽後|雄勝郡田代村大字軽井沢

Ugo|Karuizawa, Tashiro-mura, Ogatsu-gun

同 同  同  大字田代

Same, same, large character Tashiro

同 北秋田郡十二所町大字軽井沢字軽井沢

The same Karuizawa, 12 places in Kitakita-gun, Karuizawa

同 同  同  大字葛原字田代

The same the same Kazuhara character Tashiro

 少し離れてはいるが上野吾妻郡|嬬恋村大字田代なども、浅間山の東側を伝って碓氷の軽井沢と通うている。

Despite being a little far away, Ueno Agatsuma-gun | Tsumagoi-mura Large character Tashiro and others also travel along the east side of Mount Asama to Karuizawa on Usui.

この田代という地は全国に何百とあるが意味の深い地名だ。

There are hundreds of places in this country called Tashiro, but it is a meaningful place name.

田代という語は近世の書物には単に耕地の意味に用いられているのもあるが、その字義から推してもまたその所在が多く入野の奥であることを考えても、もとはただ水田適地ということで、上古の文書に墾地などとあるのと同じ意味であったらしい。

Although the word Tashiro is sometimes used in modern texts to mean simply cultivated land, the original text suggests that rice fields are used only for paddy fields, even though the wording Tashiro suggests that there are many locations and they are deep in Irino. It is said that the proper place had the same meaning as that used in ancient documents such as landslides.

天平十六年の大安寺資財帳に、伊勢国三重郡|采女郷十四町の内訳、開田二町五段未開田代十二町、同|員弁郡|宿野原五百町、開田三十町未開田代四百七十町などとある。

In the 16th year of Tenpyo, the capital account book, Mie-gun, Isekuni, breakdown of 14 towns of Gionjogo, Kadanani, 5th grade not opened Tashiro, 12th; For example, there are 470 Tashiro towns.

この未開田代はやがては田代という地名の起原であろうと思う。

I think this undeveloped Tashiro will eventually be the origin of the place name Tashiro.

降って『続左丞抄』に採録した建久六年の若狭の国富保の文書などには、前には田三十四町一反余の内訳、見作(現作)二十五町三段余、田代八町八段余とあり、後には同じ数字を再起して、見作田何程、荒何程としてある。

The documents of Wakasa Kunito Tomiho, which was built in the 6th year of the Edo period, were recorded in "Zokuzashosho" after the rain, and the breakdown of Tashu 34-cho Ichiban-Yu was the original (current) 25-cho. There are Sandan and Tashiro-Hachimachi-Hachidan, and after that, the same numbers are re-introduced to indicate how much Mikakuda and how rough.

要するに開けば水田になるべき地のことと考えられる。

In short, it is considered to be the area that should become a paddy field if opened.

その田代が今はたいてい開かれて一区の村里の名になっていることは、以前その下流または隣接地に本村などがあって、早くから水田適地としてこの地に着目していたのを人口が増すにつれて開作に手を下したということを意味し、多くの田代がずいぶんの山奥にあるのは、今日でも北海道・樺太の新村で米を栽培したがると同一の人情で、水の手の乏しい高地を拓くに至り、いよいよ米作の希望を痛切にした結果が、地名となって残ったものと思う。

The fact that Tashiro is now mostly open and has become the name of a village in a ward is because there was a main village in the downstream or adjacent land, and the population was paying attention to this area as a suitable paddy field from early on. It means that as the number increased, the number of Tashiro was reduced, and many Tashiro are deep in the mountains with the same humanity as if they wanted to grow rice in the new village of Karafuta in Hokkaido today. I think that the result of making the hope for rice cultivation finally reached the highlands and remained as a place name.

しこうしてその田代に接近して存する軽井沢が、負搬してまでも道路を求めた人間移動の流れの溝口を意味するとすれば、これだけでも昔の田舎の生活が偲ばれる。

Thus, if Karuizawa, which is close to Tashiro, means Mizoguchi, the flow of human movement that sought a road even after carrying it, this alone would remind us of old rural life.

伊豆の今一つの田代などは、源平時代にすでに狩野氏の分家が入って住んでいた。

Another town in Izu, such as Tashiro, had already lived in the branch house of Mr. Kano during the Genpei era.

三四 イナカ

34 Inaka

 田舎という語の最も古く顕われたのは『日本書紀』垂仁天皇の二年、意富加羅国王の子|都怒我阿羅斯等の伝説である。

The oldest manifestation of the word countryside is the legend of Emperor Surinin Nihonshoki, the son of King Itokara |

その中の黄牛に田器を負わせて田舎に将往かんとすとあって、田舎の二字をいつの頃よりかイナカと訓ませている。

He says that the yellow cow in it is loaded with rice fields and sent to the countryside to teach him the two letters of the countryside as Inaka.

『書紀』ができてからすでに千三百年以上になるが、今もってこの語の範囲が判然と分らない。

It has been more than 1,300 years since the creation of "Shoki", but the scope of this word is still unknown.

前年肥後の天草下島の大江村において古い村絵図を見たことがある。

I have seen an old village picture in Oe village on Amakusa Shimoshima after Higo last year.

この村は三百年来の切支丹がたくさん隠れて住んでいた僻村である。

This village is a remote village where many 300 year-old Kirishitan have been hiding and living.

西に小さな湾を控えた簡単な一盆地で、人家は大方周囲の山の裾に構えられ、道路も本線は麓に沿い耕作地を潰さぬ工夫がしてある。

It is a simple basin with a small bay to the west. Houses are mostly set up at the foot of the surrounding mountains, and roads and main lines are along the foot of the mountain, so that cultivated land is not destroyed.

地図を見ると、中央の田のある部分をイナカと書いている。

Looking at the map, the part with the central rice field is written as Inaka.

現在の地形と比べて見て自分はこの語の本の意味を理解したような気がした。

Compared with the current terrain, I felt that I understood the meaning of this book.

イナカはすなわちイの中で、イとは民居すなわち家居の居であろう。

Inaka would be the house of a folk house, that is, the house of the house.

『万葉』の歌に春霞ゐの上ゆ只に路はあれど云々とある井上は堰に臨んだ山路とも見えぬことはないが、それではその路が近いということも感じにくく、また少々突然のような気もする。

In the song "Manyo", there is a road in the spring haze, but there is a road, but Inoue can be seen as a mountain road facing the weir, but it is hard to feel that the road is close, and it is a little sudden. I also feel like.

これもやはり民居の上で、今ならば裏の山路を越えれば近いが、逢いたさに迂回をするとでもいうべき情合いであろう。

Again, this is on a private residence, and if it crosses the mountain road in the back, it will be close, but it may be said that you should make a detour when you meet.

 昔は今でいう田舎それ自身の中において、特に田舎者がイナカと名づけた地域があった。

 In the past, there was an area in the countryside that was named by Inaka, especially in the countryside.

たとえば対馬国佐須村大字久根浜、同大字久根田舎の類である。

For example, Kunehama in Sasumura, Tsushima, and Kune countryside in the same village.

同じ島豊崎村に大字浜久須及び大字久須、後者は『津島記事』によれば俗にあるいは田舎久須と称すとある。

In the same island, Toyosaki Village, the large-scale Hamakusu and large-scale Kusu, and the latter are said to be commonly known as the countryside Kusu according to the Tsushima article.

仁位村大字曾にも字田舎及び字浜がある。

There are also rural areas and beaches in Niji Village.

ともに以前のいわゆる枝村である。

Both are former so-called Emura.

これらの田舎に対立する浜はおそらくは船附場の町屋あるいは漁民部落であろう。

These conflicting beaches are probably the townhouses of the shipyard or the village of fishermen.

たとい幾分か農業を営むとしても、経営の様式がよほど田舎の方とは違っていたかと思う。

Even if I do some farming, I think that the management style was very different from that of rural people.

元一村の土地がかくのごとく二つの部落に分立したのは、決して単純に距離のためではないはずである。

The reason why the land of Motoichi Village was thus divided into two villages should not be because of distance.

ほかの地方では同種の場合に浜村に対して用いられる名称は岡村であった。

In other regions, the name used for Hamamura in the same case was Okamura.