文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

地名の研究:柳田國男(3031-3061)/3905

タヤ(田屋)という語はある地方では産屋・忌屋を意味するが、もとはやはり出て耕作するのが名の起りらしい。

The word Taya (Taya) means a shop or a bad shop in a certain region, but it seems that the original name is to go out and cultivate it.

しかもそのタヤが、多くの新在家・出屋敷の起原であったことを考えてみると、右のサンキョはとりもなおさず、昔の分家制度の痕跡ではなかったかと思う。

Moreover, considering that Taya was the origin of many new homes and new houses, I think Sankyo on the right was a trace of the old branch system.

『和歌山県誌』下巻方言の部にも、東牟婁郡で三男のことをサンキョというとある。

In the Wakayama Prefecture magazine, the second volume of the dialect, the third son in Higashimuro-gun is called Sankyo.

必ずしも三男に限ったことでなく、大島と同様に第一次の分家をインキョというから口拍子であろう。

It is not necessarily limited to the third son, but like Oshima, it will be a clamor because the first branch is called Inkyo.

三六 垣内と谷地

Sanroku Kakiuchi and Yachi

『郷土研究』に必ず研究せらるべくして、ついにこれという説にも接しなかったのは垣内の問題である。

It is Kakiuchi's problem that he did not even come up with this theory at the end, in order to make sure that he could be researched in "Hometown Studies".

村の歴史を調べる人々にとっては遺憾なことであるが、つまりそれだけに込み入った概念を得にくい事柄なれば仕方がない。

It's regrettable for those who study the history of the village, that is, it's hard to get a complicated concept.

『三州志』などを見ると、加州藩では他の諸国で出村・分郷・枝村といい、越前で朶などといっていた小部落を垣内と公称し、何郷何箇村及び垣内幾箇処などと録している。

Looking at "Sanshu" etc., in the Kashu clan it is called Demura, Bungo and Edamura in other countries, and the small villages that were said to be in Ochi in Echizen were nominally named as Kakiuchi. It is recorded as a place.

垣内は文字のごとく垣の内でいわゆる土豪の囲い込んだ地域を意味するからは、枝郷をかく呼ぶのは適せぬようであるが、これは村の属地の義に一転してから後のことであろう。

It seems that it is not appropriate to call Egasho because Kakiuchi means the area surrounded by Todo in the fence like a character, but after turning to the right of the district of the village It will be.

越前|敦賀附近の村で共有地のことを垣内山と呼んでいるのを聞いたことがある。

Echizen | I've heard that a common area is called Kakiuchiyama in a village near Tsuruga.

その垣内山を拓いたゆえに新部落をも垣内というのはあたかも東京の近郊で村附の山野を開いた一区をサンヤ(山谷、三屋などと書く)というのと同じであろう。

Because the Kakiuchi Mountain was opened up, the new village is called Kakiuchi, as if the one ward in the suburbs of Tokyo that opened the Yamano area of the village was called Sanya (written as Yamatani, Sanya, etc.).

文字よりいえば山野はただ未開地であるが、夙くから個人の占有に帰した山野のことを、某のまたは村のという語を略してただサンヤと呼んでいた。

Speaking of the characters, Yamano is just an undeveloped land, but Yamano, who has been declining for personal possession, was simply called Sanya, abbreviation of a certain word or village.

支村の垣内もその山谷などと同じとすれば、ずっと以前一区劃の屋敷地を何々垣内と名づけたのと、結局趣旨は一致する。

If the Kakiuchi of the branch village is the same as the mountain valley, the purpose of the house is to match the name of the Kakiuchi long ago.

要するに後には共和的の垣内も起ったが、この語の本来の意味はある有力なる一人の占有者の分内に、その被護者が許されて住みかつ耕すということで、大和や紀伊辺にはたまたまその古き思想がだいたい昔のままこの語に伴なっていたのである。

In short, a republic of Kakiuchi occurred later, but the original meaning of this word is that the protected person is allowed to live and cultivate within the scope of one powerful occupant, Yamato and Kii. It happened that the old thoughts of the word were mostly associated with this word.

その他の諸国にも注意して見ると同じ痕跡はあって依然として小区劃の地名に多く用いられ、ただ住民がカイトの意味を忘れたために、漢字を宛てる時に勝手なことをしている。

If you look carefully at the other countries, the same traces are still used, and they are still used for the place name of the subdistrict, and the residents forget the meaning of the kite.

垣内は古くからカキツと唱えていた。

Kakiuchi has been chanting for a long time.

それがカイツとなりカイトとなったので、処によってはカイチと聞え、または方言でカクチとも発音したかと思う。

It became a kite and became a kite, so I think I heard it as Kaichi, or pronounced it as Kakuchi in the dialect depending on the place.

伊勢・近江・美濃などはカイトまたはカイドであったとみえて、貝戸・海道・皆渡・開土・外戸などの字が当ててある。

It seems that Ise, Omi, Mino, etc. were kites or kaido, and the letters Kaido, Kaido, Minatado, Kaido, Soto, etc. are used.

三河の北部などはカイツであったとおぼしく、往々御所貝津・殿貝津の類がある。

The northern part of Mikawa is said to have been kites, and there are often Goshokaizu and Tonokaizu.

伊賀では旧村名に二三の「界外」があって今はカイゲと呼んでいるが、これも「外」の字を「ト」と訓んだのではあるまいか。

In Iga, there are a couple of "outside world" in the old village name, and now I call it Kaige, but I wonder if this was also the word "outside".

信州上伊那郡藤沢村の御堂垣外なども垣内と書いてカイトとは呑み込めずまた事実その御堂の境内でないゆえに、後の庄屋等がさかしらに「外」の字を当てたと見える。

The area outside Midogaki in Fujisawa-mura, Kamiina, Shinshu is also written as Kakiuchi and cannot be swallowed by a kite, and in fact it is not within the precincts of that Mido, so it seems that Shoya and others later applied the word "outside".

「界」の字を用いたのは区劃の思想が幽かに伝わっていたためであろう。

The reason for using the word "kai" is probably because the idea of the division was transmitted in a vague way.

丹波北桑田郡大野には「文字塁地」という字もある。

There is also a letter called "base ground" in Ono, Kita-Kuwata-gun, Tamba.

ついでに言うがブンジは梵志すなわち後の虚無僧のことで、梵志が貰っていた屋敷のことであろう。

By the way, Bunji means Brahma, that is, the later Virgin Monk, and the mansion that he had received.

波多|垣内・神子垣内の類は中国辺に多い。

Hata|Kakiuchi and Miko There are many kinds of Kakiuchi around China.

中国ではもっぱらカイチであったらしく、しばしば「皆地」の字を当て、また備前・美作以西に今は岡ヶ市・岬ヶ市などと「ヶ市」の字を用いる例がはなはだ多い。

In China, it seems to have been the only character, and the letters "Minchi" are often used, and in the west of Bizen and Mimasaka, there are many examples in which the letters "Kaichi" are used, such as Okaga City and Misaki City.

おそらくはその邑落に小さい市でも立っていた地と考えたのであろう。

Perhaps I thought it was the place where even a small city stood in the village.

これとよく似ているのは関東の「何ヶ|谷戸」である。

Similar to this is Kanto's "How many | Yato".

この文字を使用し始めた人々は、殿ヶ谷戸・政所ヶ谷戸も皆ヤトの名と考えたのかも知れぬが、他の例から押すとそれは疑わしい。

The people who started using this character may have thought that Tonogayato and Masashogayato were all the names of Yato, but it is doubtful if pressed from other examples.

鎌倉の笹目ヶ|谷・扇ヶ谷の類もこれを同じである。

Sasamega in Kamakura | The same applies to the valley and Oogaya valleys.

谷をヤツというのはもちろん、アイヌ語のヤチすなわち湿地が起りで、現に常陸でも沮洳の地をヤチ・ヤチッボ、あるいはヤチッベなどと呼び(茨城県方言集覧)、会津でも下湿の地をヤチと言い(新編風土記)、江戸附近では草茂り水ある所をヤといい(俚言集覧)、佐渡でも低地水多き所をヤチ(谷地)またはフケと呼び(佐渡方言集)、信州ではさらに進んで蜘蛛の巣をもヤジと称ったそうである(これは虫の悩むことヤチのごときためであろうか)。

Not only the valley is called a yat, but also the Ainu word Yachi, that is, a wetland, is called the Yachi Yachibbo or Yachibbe, which is actually the land of Hitachi, even in Hitachi (Ibaraki dialect collection). It is called Yachi (new story), the place where there is overgrown water near Edo is called Ya (list of words), the place with many lowland waters is called Yachi (Yachi) or dandruff (Sado dialect) even in Sado, and further in Shinshu. He said he was willing to call the spider's web a yaji (Is this because of the insect bugs?).