文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

地名の研究:柳田國男(3239-3271)/3905

出雲でも『雲陽志』、今の八束郡上川津の条に、伝えて多賀備中守信忠の屋敷跡という地を土人は土井と呼ぶ。

Even in Izumo, the people of the "Yuyoshi", the place of the residence of Taga Binchu Morinobu Tadashi in the current article of Kamikawazu, Yatsuka-gun, is called Doi.

三方は堀で石垣の跡がある。

There are traces of Ishigaki on the other side of the moat.

同じく仁多郡の大内原に土居、これは三沢為清が亀嵩の城を築く前三年の間居住すといい、土居とは屋敷のことだと言い添えてある。

Doi also resides in Ouchihara, Nita-gun, and it is said that he lived in the three years before Tamaki Kiyoshi Misawa built the castle of Kametake. Doi is a mansion.

簸川郡|塩冶村には塩冶判官の屋敷跡と称する地、これを判官の土井と呼び今に至るまで民家を作らぬ。

Yancheon-gun | In Shioji Village, a place called Shioji Judge's mansion site, which is called Judge Doi, has not built a private house until now.

これは一町四方に土手を築いてあるという。

This is said to have banks on all four sides.

長門では『長門風土記』に、豊浦郡阿川村字土井、昔某氏の大屋敷なり、これを御土居と唱えしを後世土井と誤ったという。

In Nagato, in "Nagato Fudoki", it was said that Doi, Agawa-mura, Toyoura-gun, was a large mansion of a certain old man.

阿武郡|田万崎村大字江崎の字土居についてはこうも書いてある。

Abu-gun|Tamanzaki-mura Large character Esaki's doi is also written as follows.

当所は先年益田河内様御田屋御坐候事(以上)。

This place was the last year of Masuda Kawauchi's Otaya Gozaizai (above).

田屋という語は後にはいろいろの意味も添わったが本来は漢字の荘に当る語で、田舎の領地内に作りおき農業事務所とも名づくべき用に供したもので、古くは政所ともいったものである。

The word Taya has various meanings later, but originally it is a kanji villa, and it was originally made in the territory of the country and used for what should be called an agricultural office. It is a thing.

東国の仮宿・狩宿、薩隅日の御仮屋も、領主巡視の折の休憩所の義に出でたものであるが、実は代官ばかり入部するから結局同じことになる。

The temporary lodgings and hunting lodgings in the Eastern countries, and the Satsumi-no-Hi mikaya were also used as a resting place during patrols of the lords, but the fact is that since only the deputy officers are admitted, the same thing will result.

土佐などでは近い頃までこの政所を御土居と呼んでいた。

Until around this time, Tosa and others called this government office the “Doi”.

伊予の土居は土居得能氏の土居ばかり早くから有名であったが、あの辺を旅行した人はよく知るごとく、阿波・土佐の山村にかけて土居と言う村名が無数にある。

Iyo's Doi has been famous since Doi Tokuno's Doi as early as possible, but as people who have traveled there know that there are countless village names called Doi over the mountainous villages of Awa and Tosa.

『小松邑誌』巻十三には伊予各郡の土居構五十三所を列記している。

"Komatsu-e" magazine Volume 13 lists the fifty-three Doi structures in each Iyo-gun.

いずれも河野家の家人であるらしい。

It seems that both are family members of the Kono family.

たとえば越智郡では鳥生の土居構には鳥生氏住し、野間郡池原の土居構には池原氏おり、温泉郡桑原の土居構には桑原氏おり、同じく松末の土居構には松末氏住みて、一にまた松末館とも書いてある。

For example, in Ochi-gun, Mr. Torio lived in the doi structure of Tori, Mr. Ikehara in the doi structure of Ikehara in Noma-gun, Mr. Kuwahara in the doi structure of Kuwabara in Onsen-gun, and Mr. Matsusue in the doi structure of Matsusue. It is also written as Matsusuekan.

これをもって見れば、土居は決して近世にいわゆるドイをもって取り囲むことを要せず、単に武家の屋敷というに過ぎぬようである。

From this, it seems that Doi did not need to be surrounded by so-called Doi in the early modern times, it was just a samurai residence.

四国の境山の地形を知っている人は、おそらくはこの辺に土手を築く必要のなかったことを認めるであろう。

Those who know the topography of Shikoku's Sakaiyama will probably admit that they did not have to build a bank here.

土佐にはたくさんの実例があるがかりにその一例を挙げると『土佐州郡誌』安芸郡土居村の条に、方言に邑中の堡城これを土居という。

There are many examples in Tosa, but one example is Doi-mura, Aki-gun's article in the Tosashu-gun magazine.

この地|安喜氏の旧塁ありゆえに名づくとある。

This place | It is said that it is named because Mr. Aki's old base.

これらを考えると土手をドイということは、全然屋敷の土居とは関係なきかまたは後になって意味が変化しただけで、ドイをもって囲んだから土居だという説は成り立たぬ。

Considering these, the meaning of Doi is not relevant to Doi of the mansion, or only changed its meaning later, and the theory that it is Doi because it was surrounded by Doi does not hold.

この土居の地名の多く存している中国・四国の村々に入り、その地形を審かにしつつ昔からの生活を考えたら、多くの面白い事実が発見せられることと思う。

If you enter the villages of Chugoku and Shikoku, where many of the Doi's place names exist, and think about their geography and think about their old life, you will discover many interesting facts.

東北のタテには今は民居の絶縁したものが多いが、土居の方はそうでないのは、多分は農業組織の差異がしからしめたのであろう。

Most of the verticals in the Tohoku area are now isolated from the private residences, but the Doi ones are not, probably because of differences in agricultural organizations.

四一 竹の花

41 bamboo flowers

『袖中抄』に引くところの古歌、「我のみや子持たりと思へば武隈のはなはに立てる松も子持たり」、『拾遺集』に「高砂の尾上に立てる」とあるのは、普通の耳馴れた詞に詠み改めたものであろう。

There is an old poem in "Sodechusho", "I have a pine tree with a pine tree standing on the shore of Takekuma if I think of it as a child holding me," and a "collection" that says "standing on the top of Takasago". Would have been reworded into the usual familiar words.

武隈の塙の松は有名なる奥州の歌名所で、古来人のもてはやす所である。

Takekuma no Matsu is a famous Oshu song spot and is a place of entertainment for ancient people.

今の岩沼の停車場の案内札に竹駒神社これより何町とかあっていたって近く、近世になってたびたび相続の松を栽えている。

Takekoma Shrine is now on the guide sign at the current Iwanuma stop, and it is close to how many towns there are from now on.

あれを昔の武隈としてもこの話には差支えがない。

There is no difference in this story even if it is used as an old Wuma.

真偽とかくの論はあるが自分の見るところによれば「高砂」と同じく必ずしも一定の場所の地名ではないかも知れぬ。

Although there is a theory that it is true or false, according to one's point of view, it may not always be the place name of a certain place like "Takasago".

従って多くの「武隈」の松が名乗って出で得るのである。

Therefore, many "Wakuma" pine trees can be called out and named.

武隈という地名の起原は、一説には下を流るる川の名と同じくもと阿武隈であったのが、阿の字脱落して読み方を誤るに至ったのだろうとあるが、あまりに文字に拘泥した説明である。

The origin of the place name, Takekuma, was originally Abukuma, as was the name of the river flowing down, but it seems that the character A was dropped and the reading was wrong, but it was too written. This is the explanation I was obsessed with.

思うに阿武隈または武隈の名はともに中国以西に多い久万もしくは何隈という地のごとく、水流の屈曲している地形を意味する普通名詞であろう。

I think that the name Abukuma or Wukuma is an ordinary noun that means the terrain where water flow is bent, like the land of Kuma or Kuma, which is west of China.

『新撰字鏡』に「岸久万、また太乎里、また井太乎利、曲岸なり」とある。

"Shinsenjigami Mirror" says, "Kuma Kishi, again Tauri, again Itairi, Nagishi."

ただしクマもタオリもともにまた山についてもいう語であるからこれは単に彎曲というだけの意味であったと思う。

However, since both bear and Taori are also terms for mountains, I think this meant simply a curve.