文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

地名の研究:柳田國男(3800-3832)/3905

武家の故実に矢開のことがある。

There are times when the samurai family actually opened their doors.

それよりも古くは『吾妻鏡』建久四年富士の狩の条に「御狩|訖りて晩に属し、そこにおいて山神矢口等を祭らる」とある。

Earlier than that, the "Azuma Kagami" sword of Fuji in the 4th year of the Edo period says, "Mt.

日向|西臼杵郡の山中では狩の始めに鉄砲を一発放ちて山の神に手向くるを矢立という。

Hinata | In the mountains of Nishiusuki-gun, it is called Yatate that you shoot a gun at the beginning of hunting and head to the god of the mountains.

思うに鉄砲使用以前には矢を放ちて祝したものだろう。

I think it was a celebration of shooting arrows before using the gun.

これら古今の例はすべて山中で矢を用いて神を祭ることを示すのみでその由来を明らかにするには足らぬが、自分の臆測では、その矢はやがて山神と境を劃して相守るの意を含むこと、山口の祭と同じからんと思う。

Although all these ancient and modern examples are not enough to clarify the origin by only showing the use of arrows in the mountains to worship the god, it is my own fault that the arrows will eventually form a border with the mountain god and protect them. I think it is the same as Yamaguchi's festival.

山口祭は古い祭である。

The Yamaguchi Festival is an old festival.

山に入って採樵せんとする者がいわば山神の領分を侵さんとする一つの言訳である。

It is one excuse that a person who goes into the mountain and tries to get a tree is invading the territory of the mountain god.

しこうしてもしこの祭に矢を用いたとするも、狩猟に際し単に持ち合せた品を献ずるの趣旨ではなくて、別に意味があるはずである。

However, if you used an arrow for this festival, it should not be the purpose of simply offering the items you have with you when hunting, but it should have a different meaning.

境に矢を立てるは串刺の意であろう。

It would be skewered to set an arrow on the border.

かく思う所以は次に挙げる二の口碑の偶合するがためである。

The reason I think so is that the following two monuments meet.

イ 下総香取郡久賀村大字次浦の民有山林中に径三間高一丈ばかりの塚がある。

B. There is a mound with a diameter of only one high and a third in a privately owned forest in Tsujiura, Kuga Village, Shimosa, Katori-gun.

塚の名を矢指塚という。

The name of the mound is called Yasushizuka.

伝え言う、源頼義父子奥州より凱旋の途次、上総の海岸に上陸したる折、征矢百本を取り一里(小道)ごとに一本の矢を指したるに、九十九にして一本残りたればこの塚に埋む。

I tell you that when the father and son, Minamoto no Yoritoshi Oshu, made a triumphant return, when he landed on the coast of Kazusa, he took 100 hundred seiyas and pointed to one arrow for each ri (path). If there are books left, they will be buried in this mound.

俚謡あり曰く「九十九里矢指が浦に来て見れば一浦足らでそこが次浦」云々(香取郡誌)。

There is a folk song saying, "If Kujukuriya fingers come to Ura and see it, there will be Ichiura feet and that next is Ura" (Katori-gun magazine).

ロ 肥後|下益城郡豊田村大字塚原には塚所々にあり。

B. Higo | There are many places in Tsukahara in Tsukahara, Toyota village, Shimomashi-gun.

俚俗伝えていう。

It's a tradition.

この塚は百ヶ所にありといえども百本の串を作りて塚ごとに一本ずつ立つるに一本は必ず残る。

Even though there are hundreds of mounds in the mound, one is always left for making one hundred skewers and standing one at each mound.

ゆえをもってこれを九十九塚という云々(肥後国誌)。

Therefore, this is called Kujukutsuka (Higo country magazine).

 百塚・百穴などの名は、塚の数のはなはだ多いのを大数をもって呼べるものともいえようが、百の数に一つ足りない九十九塚に至っては意味なしとせぬ。

It can be said that the names such as Hyakutsuka and Hyakken can be called with a large number of mounds, but it is meaningless to reach 99 Kutsuka, which is less than one hundred.

九十九をツクモという理由は、『袖中抄』以来の諸説いずれも信を執りがたいからまずは他日の研究に譲ろう。

The reason that 99 is Tsukumo is that it is difficult to trust any of the various theories since "Sodechusho", so let's first give it to another day's research.

ただここに申したいのは、右の九十九塚の伝説がはなはだしく熊野の九十九王子の思想に似たことである。

However, I would like to mention here that the legend of Kutsukazuka on the right remarkably resembled the idea of Kumano's 99th Prince.

『御幸記』などにも見えるごとく、京より三山に詣でるには、途次に九十九箇所の王子祠を拝し、その第百番目が熊野である。

As you can see in "Miyuki", in order to visit Miyama from Kyo, you will visit the 99 prince shrines, and the 100th is Kumano.

いわゆる塚の上におのおの一本の矢または串を立てるというのも、あるいはこれをもって熊野を祭ったものではなかろうか。

Isn't it possible that one of the so-called mounds was used to make a single arrow or skewer, or this was used to celebrate Kumano?

 矢を串と称する今一つの証拠は、神武紀|孔舎衛坂の戦の条に「流矢ありて五瀬命の肱脛に中れり云々」。

Another piece of evidence that calls an arrow a skewer is "Kamitakenki": "There is a dart and there is a dash on Goto's shank."

『古事記』の同じ条には「五瀬命御手に登美毘古が痛矢串を負いたまいき」とある。

The same article in "Kojiki" states "Tomi Bikko has a painful pain in Gote Mitsue."

『日本紀』の流布本もまたこれによりて流矢をイタヤグシと訓んでいる。

Due to this, the "Nipponoki" dissemination book also teaches ryuuya as a tadpole.

これをもって思えば、後世イグシといい玉串と称し、形はまったく変じたがクシの原義はすなわち箭のことであろう。

If you think of this, it is called Tamashigushi, which is called Igushi in the posterity, and the shape has changed completely, but the original meaning of Kushi is probably a bamboo basket.

今日まで苗代の水口に挿むところの斎串が、竹の端に紙片などを挟んだのは、別に護符などの入れ物というのではなくて、昔の矢の形の遺ったものだろう。

Saito skewers, which are inserted into the water mouth of Naeshiro until today, have a piece of paper sandwiched between bamboo ends, not a separate amulet container, but an old arrow shape.

従って『万葉』のいぐし立てみわすゑまつる云々の歌も、神事に箭を用いる一例と見るべく、この箭はやがて注連縄と同一の趣味に基き、神境を標示するの目的と見られようか。

Therefore, the song of Iwadashi Iwasuzu Matsuri in "Manyo" is to be seen as an example of using a bamboo shrine for Shinto rituals. ..

 串を境に刺すことは歴としたる出典がある。

There is a historical source of sticking skewers on the border.

『書紀』の一書の素盞嗚尊の悪業を列挙した条に「春はすなわち渠槽を廃し及び溝を埋め畔を毀ちまた種子を重播す、秋はすなわち籤を挿し馬を伏す、およそこの悪事かつて息む時なし」とある。

According to the article that enumerates the bad habits of Soubou-son in the book of "Shoki", "Spring means abolishing the drainage tank and burying ditches on the shore, and sowing seeds heavily, and in autumn, putting a lottery on a horse, There is no time to breathe this evil thing."

『釈紀』の述義にては籤を田中に刺し立つるは咒咀にしてもし強いてその田を耕す者あらば身ついに滅亡するなりと解いているが誤りである。

It is an error in the statement of "Shaki" that it is a mistake to stab a lottery in Tanaka, even if it is a stubble, and if anyone who cultivates the field is forced to die.

串刺は『古語拾遺』にも「ひそかにその田に往きて串を刺して相争うなり」と見え、大祓の祝詞にも同じく畔放、溝埋、樋放、頻蒔、串刺と列挙してこれを天津罪すなわち新来の優等人種が犯すおそれある罪の中に数えたのを見ても明白であるごとく、他人がすでに改良を加え畔を作り水を引き種子を下した土地に、重ねて種を播きまず利用に着手したのは我なりと称して占有権を主張するのが不徳義なのと同様に、人の点定占有した土地に後から行って串を指し自分の標めた野なりと争うのを罪となしたのである。

Kushisashi can be seen in "Old Word Retrieval" as "Go secretly to the rice field and stab the skewers to compete with each other." In the words of Ohira, it is also listed as shore-leaving, mizo-burying, hiru-ho, taiki, kushi-sashi. As it is obvious from the fact that this was counted among the crimes that Tianjin sin, a new honor race may commit, on the land where others have already made improvements and made water and drowned seeds, Just as it is unethical to claim possession right by calling myself the reason why I started to use the seeds without repeatedly sowing it, I went to the land occupied by a person later and pointed at the skewer and marked my own mark. He was guilty of fighting with the wild field.