『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。



A few thoughts on the pass


Kunio Yanagita

一 山の彼方

Beyond the mountain


Bjornsung's Arne song is sad, but we Japanese don't really understand the situation.


Japan is also a mountainous country, and each village, each country, county, and village is bordered by a mountain range in each basin, but in the mountains and usually spring, it is a mountain where cherry trees bloom. It's not the high-rise snowfall that is hard to cross like in his hometown.


The plain beyond the mountains and the sea are always visible when you climb.


Despite being a foreign town, there is a certain degree of familiarity.


As you can see by reading this, a Kyogen story that most clearly captures the life of the Middle Ages, there is an aunt in the mountains to make sake, and a virtuous person lives and searches for the army. Or


When I was a kid, I was familiar with the taste of songs such as "melon and eggplant hanazakari" and "buns and cloths".


At that time, it was a time when new construction of elementary schools was in fashion.


When I climbed up any mountain, I could see one great building with paint.


And looking back, my village was also beautiful.

二 たわ・たを・たをり

Two babies/tao/taori


There is always a mountain path on the boundary mountain.


The first mountain path may have been a mere footprint without the effort of cutting stones and weeding, but even a beast has a diameter.


In addition, even if people live in the mountains, they hate loneliness, catch up with the people who come, and try to meet the people who come, so the sheep intestines naturally unite.


Not only that, but there is another consideration for those who are wondering why they should cross this mountain.


It takes time to go around the foot on the left and right, and if you go over the front, it is easiest to go up the valley river, the most abraded part of the mountain soil, and the saddle part in modern times.


In pure Japanese, this is called "tawa" (Kojiki) or "taori" (Manyoshu).


"Tawa" and "Taori" not only exist in countries as place names but also live as common nouns.


Kamakura's samurai warrior Ota Kazaburo is a member of the Miura family, and the current name of Otawa, Takeyama village, Takeura village, Miura-gun, is the name of the family.


Otawa Wakoshi, which crosses from Hatta in Iga to Yamato, has many other places in Eastern Japan, and even more in the west.


"Tatori" is a small mountain that crosses from Fukuyama in Osumi to Miyakonojo in Hyuga. It is a national highway where horse-drawn carriages run.


Iyokita-gun Kitada-nada Oma Imabobo Toorinoyama, Bizen Oku-gun Shijumura Oji Gosukedani Doriyama, Mineno Ena Shizunami Oji Nojiji Dorizawa, Echigo Minami Kambara Osakimura Shimodagata Tsuzaka, Hitachi This is also true for Katsuta-mura, Naka-gun, Santanda, Doriyama, etc.


In China, the mountain pass is called "tawa" or "tao", and most of them are called "bashi".


The 乢 is a so-called saddle-shaped hieroglyph, which is a new Japanese character similar to the Toge.


If you cross the Utsumi Sea and enter Shikoku, you will call it "tou" instead of "tao," but "tou" must be a reintroduction of "tao."


The prosperous crossing from the country of Tosa to the valley of the Ananai River, and Kakuto from Hitoyoshi in Higo to Hinata are both famous mountain passes, but this wisteria will also be "tao".


It is a common myth that "tauge" comes from "tamuke", but there is room for doubt.


It is not always the summit that turns to the god of the path.


Since Osaka is the Kyoto border of Yamashiro and Narasaka is the Kyoto border of Yamato, it may not be because the festival was held at the top of the mountain pass.


"Tauge" may also be a word that comes from "Tawa."

三 昔の峠と今の峠

Three old pass and present pass


It is clear that "tawa" and "taori" have the same etymology as the word "deflect" today, but the "tawa" is low due to one bend at the summit line. It is not possible to decide whether to say that, or to say that the hem of the mountain overlaps and bends into it.


When you look at "Shinsenji Mirror," it says, "Lake, the rich appearance of the mountains, Mine of the mountains, and Eitari."


There is also "*, Kage Kishiya, Kuma Mata Tama Mata Tawari".


In fact, it is reasonable for old people to seek a low place at the top of a mountain, and at the same time, to find a place where they can step deep into the mountain without hesitation, depending on the flow of water.


If you go up along the Tanigawa, you will naturally cross a low place.


Therefore, it is difficult to easily determine whether "tawa" is the "tawa" on the top line or the "tawa" on the mountain side.