文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

年中行事覚書:柳田國男(792-817)/2401

豊後国東の海上にある姫島にも大帯八幡の社がある。

Himeshima, which is located on the sea in the eastern part of Bungo Province, also has a shrine of Oobi Hachiman.

以前はこれを大虎八幡と呼んでいた。

Previously this was called Daitora Hachiman.

祭の日は四月八日と七月七日とで、その七月七日も水の神に縁のある日である。

The festival days are April 8th and July 7th, and July 7th is also a day related to the god of water.

 秋田市の古四王神社の付近には、もと船※沢という地に虎ノ井と称する清水があった。

In the vicinity of Koshio Shrine in Akita City, there was Shimizu called Toranoi in the area called Funa * Sawa.

四月八日の祭の日に木馬を灌い奉るより外の用には用いざる水であったという(蕉雨雑筆)。

It is said that the water was not used for outside purposes rather than irrigating the horse on the day of the festival on April 8 (Shorain miscellaneous writing).

祭の日に神輿を霊泉の上に迎えまつる例についても、前にちょっと述べておいたが、いわゆる神輿洗いもしくは浜下りの例は、諸国にあまり多くあってこの序に列挙することもむつかしい。

I mentioned earlier about the example of welcoming a portable shrine on a festival day, but there are so many examples of so-called portable shrine washing or going down the beach in each country, and it is difficult to list them in this introduction.

ただその中で自分の珍しいと思ったのは、大祭の日の神事とは独立してこの儀式のみを行うもの、言わば浜下りのための浜下りを行う地方のあることである。

However, what I found unusual was that there was a region where only this ritual was performed independently of the Shinto ritual on the day of the festival, so to speak, a beach descent for beach descent.

たしか仙台領にもこの例があったかと記憶するが、自分が高木誠一氏から聞いた所では、磐城四倉浜にも村々から神輿を海岸へ舁いで出る風があって、その日がやはり四月八日であった。

I remember that there was an example of this in Sendai territory, but I heard from Seiichi Takaki that there was a wind in Iwaki Yotsukurahama where a portable shrine was sent from the villages to the coast, and that day was also April 8th. It was a day.

 そこで立戻ってこの日を重要なりとするに至った理由を考えて見る。

Therefore, let's go back and think about the reason why this day became important.

熱田の花の頭などは、書物に由っては「花の堂」とも「花の橈」ともさまざまの字を当てているが、これを諏訪の花会の古式に比べて見れば「花の頭」と書くことの正しいのが分る。

Depending on the book, the head of the flower of Atsuta has various characters such as "Hana-do" and "Hana-no-jo", but if you compare this with the ancient style of Suwa no Hanakai, "Flower" You can see that it is correct to write "the head of the flower".

頭とは頭人または頭屋の頭で、年番の司祭者を意味する。

The head is the head of a headman or headman, meaning the priest of the year.

熱田にも郷頭人|輔頭人の二人があって、毎年四月晦日を以て選定せられ、翌年の五月六日まで神務を執って次の頭人と交代した。

Atsuta also had two heads, Gotojin and Suketojin, who were selected on April New Year's Day every year, and until May 6th of the following year, they took on the priesthood and replaced them with the next head.

その二人の頭人は四月晦日の夕方に鈴宮の海辺に出て解除(御祓)をしたので、この式をば頭人浜下りと名づけていたそうである(張州府志五)。

The two heads went out to the beach of Suzumiya on the evening of April New Year's Eve and released it (the shrine), so it seems that this ceremony was named Batojin Hamadori (Zhangshufu Shigo). ..

 それから推測を下すと、四月八日は五月田植の季節の祭のためにする斎忌の始めの日ではなかったかと思う。

Then, I guess that April 8th was the first day of the sacred memorial service for the May rice planting season festival.

農民に取って最も大切なる米作安全の祈祷と予言とが、五月の上旬いわゆる端午の節供を期として行われたとすれば、四月の八日はほぼ散斎致斎の日数に合うので、元は必ずしも八日ではなかったかも知れぬのは、上に列記した祭日の外に卯月上卯日と定めた社もあるので察せられる。

If the prayers and prophecies for the safety of rice cultivation, which are the most important for farmers, were made in the beginning of May, the so-called Tango no Sekku, the 8th of April would almost match the number of days of Sansai. It may not have been the 8th day, as it can be inferred from the fact that there are some companies that have designated it as the Uzuki Jou Day in addition to the holidays listed above.

 婦女が田植の儀式に深い関係のあったことは、今も早少女の晴がましい支度に跡を留めている。

The fact that the woman had a close relationship with the rice planting ritual still leaves a mark on the beautiful preparation of the early girl.

その中の一人を選定してオナリといい、ヒルマモチと称し、特に神に仕えしめていたらしいことも俚謡集の多くの田歌に由って察せらるる。

One of them is selected and called Onari, called Hirumamochi, and it seems that he was serving God in particular, because of the many folk songs in the Minyo collection.

彼等がその準備として通常の生活と別れる際に、山に入って花を摘み、海川に下って身を潔め、少女としては容易ならぬ気づかわしき謹慎を始める事は、花やかにして、同時に物哀れな光景であったことと思う。

When they break up from their normal lives in preparation for that, it is a flower to go into the mountains, pick flowers, go down to the sea river to cleanse themselves, and start to be aware that it is not easy for a girl. At the same time, I think it was a pitiful sight.

仏教の干渉介助が始まってこの作法のやや弛んだ頃に、すなわちかの多くの水の神が妻を※める話は起ったのであろう。

Around the time when Buddhist intervention assistance began and this practice was a little loose, that is, the story of many water gods swearing their wives would have occurred.

 出雲大社などではこの日|魚膾を設けて醴酒の宴をする式があった(大社志)。

At Izumo Taisha, etc., there was a ceremony on this day |

河内の誉田八幡でこの日の若宮祭礼に造花を飾った壇輾を曳くのも、壱岐の住吉社でこの日|軍越の神事と称し神馬を牽いて村々を巡るのも、他の諸社の祭典と共に、さらに重大にしてさらに静粛なる稼穡の祭の予備の儀式から発達したものではないかと思う。

At Kawachi's Houda Hachiman, you can pull the stage that decorated the Wakamiya festival on this day, or at Iki's Sumiyoshi Shrine, on this day | Gunkoshi's Shinto ritual, you can go around the villages with a god horse. I think it was developed from the preliminary ritual of the festival of earning money, which is more serious and quieter, along with the festival of.

仮にこの推定の如しとするならば、八日の日に戸口に插す季節の花を物忌の徴と見るまでは異議がなく、折口君が天道花の天道という二字に重きをおかれた点だけは、いかなものかということに帰着するのである。

If this presumption is to be made, there is no objection until the seasonal flowers that are rubbed in the doorway on the 8th are seen as a sign of condolence, and Origuchi emphasizes the two characters Tendou Hana no Tendou. Only the point comes down to what it is like.

サンバイ降しの日

Sunbai day

 終戦翌年の秋、香川県大川郡の会員田中正夫君から、小さな葉書の報告を受取って以来、私の田社考は急に興味を加え、最初にまずこの近所の高等農林校の学生のために、病い田の話という長い講演をしたのが、その半月ほど後のことであった。

Since receiving a small postcard report from Masao Tanaka, a member of Okawa-gun, Kagawa Prefecture, in the fall of the year following the end of the war, my thoughts on rice fields have suddenly become of interest, first for students of the higher agriculture and forestry schools in this neighborhood. It was about half a month later that I gave a long lecture about the sick field.

その手控えは保存してあるのだが、次々と付け加えたいことが多くなって、もう簡単にはまとめられなくなった。

I've saved that copy, but I've added more and more, and it's no longer easy to put together.

 日本の田の神信仰は、どこの国からの借りものでも真似でもなく、言わば我々の神の道のまっ只中であるにもかかわらず、神社に仕える人たちが、始終申し合わせたようにこれを研究の外に放置し、たまたまこういうことに注意しようとする者があっても、それを民間信仰だの民俗学だのと名づけて、よその道楽のように看過していたために、時代の変遷に会う毎に埋没はいよいよ甚だしく、結句めいめいの迷いを散じ蒙を啓くために、手近に見つかる知識をさえなくしてしまうのである。

The Japanese Ta-no-Kami belief is neither borrowed nor imitated from any country, and despite being in the midst of our divine path, the people who serve the shrine study it all the time Even if there is a person who happens to be careful about this kind of thing by leaving it outside the shrine, he named it folk belief and folklore and overlooked it like a stranger, so the times changed. Every time I meet, the burial is tremendous, and I lose even the knowledge that I can find at hand in order to disperse the hesitation of each and every one of them.