文学その7

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

年中行事覚書:柳田國男(1016-1042)/2401

ネブタなんがれろ、豆の葉とんまれ

Nebuta, Bean Leaf Tonmare

というのがあった(郷土研究七巻七号)。

There was (Local Studies Vol. 7, No. 7).

以前はこの際にイボタの木の葉を以て、頭から眼顔胴を擦り、それを川に流したという説もあるが(同上六巻二号)、これも必ず方言ネブタ、すなわち合歓の木を用いたもので、イボタというのは誤りだろうと思う。

In the past, there is a theory that the leaves of the privet tree were used to rub the eye and face from the head and flow it into the river (ibid., Vol. 6, No. 2), but this also always used the dialect Nebuta, that is, the tree of joy. I think that Ibota is a mistake.

 町と村落と、一つの行事の花々しさの度のちがう理由は、誰にでも容易に推測し得ることである。

The reason why the floweriness of one event is different between towns and villages is that anyone can easily guess.

仮にこの習俗が起りの遠いものならば、湊や城下町で始まった気遣いはなく、すなわち今ある形は後々の発達でなくてはならぬのだが、妙にこの点だけはお国自慢の人が取りちがえている。

If this custom is a distant one, there is no concern that started in Minato or the castle town, that is, the current form must be developed later, but strangely only this point is taken by the proud person of the country. It's wrong.

古いと言いながら今の姿によって、その由来を説明したがる者がまだ多いのである。

There are still many people who want to explain the origin of the product, even though it is old.

秋田県などは村々の眠流しが、町とは非常に変っていてしかも久しく保存せられていた。

In Akita prefecture, the sleepiness of the villages was very different from that of the town, and it was preserved for a long time.

そうして秋田市のいわゆる竿燈などは、すでに百数十年も前から、今のように盛んなものであった。

Then, the so-called Kanto in Akita City has been as prosperous as it is now for more than a hundred years.

長い竹に数本の横木を渡し、これに大いなる燈籠四十五十をぶらさげる。

A few crossbars are passed over a long bamboo, and a large lantern forty-five is hung on it.

多力の者を選んで一人で持たせ、三四人の手代りが付添うてあるいたというから、あるいは新潟の夜七夕よりも壮大だったかと思う。

I think it was more magnificent than the night Tanabata in Niigata, because it was said that a person with a lot of power was selected and held alone, and was accompanied by 34 people.

これがこの城下の眠流しなのだが、流す以前は町々を練り廻って、華美を競うのを主としていたように見える。

This is the sleep of this castle, but before it was shed, it seems that it was mainly to parade around the towns and compete for splendor.

 能代湊の眠流しは、ことに目ざましいものであったという。

It is said that Noshiro Minato's sleep flow was particularly remarkable.

高さは三丈四丈、横幅は二丈、屋形人形さまざまの巧みを尽し、蝋を引いた紙で五彩を色どり、年々新を争うて入費を惜しまなかった。

The height is three lengths and four lengths, the width is two lengths, and the house-shaped dolls have been skillfully used to color the five colors with waxed paper, and they have spared no expense every year to compete for new things.

しかもこれと同時代に行われていた村々の眠流しの方は、ただ単に麻稈をめいめいの齢の数だけ折って、草のかずらでからげ、それを枕の下に敷いて寝て、七日の朝早く川へ流すだけの行事をそう呼んでいたのである(秋田風俗問状答)。

Moreover, the people who slept in the villages at the same time simply broke the culm by the number of their ages, entwined it with a piece of grass, laid it under a pillow and slept. That's what he called an event that just drained into the river early in the morning of the 7th (Akita Customs Questionnaire).

 ここで我々の注意を引くのは、同じ仙北郡でも二つの土地で、ネムリ流しともネブタ流しともいっていることである。

What draws our attention here is that even in the same Senboku district, there are two lands, which are also called Nebuta sinks and Nebuta sinks.

鹿角郡も南部の宮川村などはネムリ流しといい(民俗学二巻七号)、北の毛馬内ではネンプタと呼んでいる。

In Kazuno-gun, Miyagawa-mura in the south is called Nemuri-nagashi (folklore, Vol. 2, No. 7), and in Mouma in the north, it is called Nempta.

双方同じということは土地土地でも知っていたろうが、どちらが前からあるかはちょっと決しかねる。

You probably knew that both were the same, but it's hard to decide which one is in front of you.

私の想像では、ネブタという語が名詞として用いられるには、単なる思い付きという以上に、そこに一つの心理過程が介在する。

In my imagination, the use of the word nebuta as a noun involves more than just an idea, a psychological process.

すなわち人を苦しませるネブタというもの、睡魔とまでは言い得なくとも何か流して離れてしまえるものがあるように考えたのが元だったらしく、合歓木をネブタという方言は、恐らくはまず来てこれを助けたのである。

In other words, it seems that it was based on the idea that there is something called Nebuta that afflicts people, something that can be washed away even if it can not be said to be sleepy, and the dialect of Nebuta is probably the first to come. It helped this.

そのネブタの木という方言は区域がずっと広く、この木の枝を流す風習もまた、ネブタ流しという土地よりも広いから自分はそう思う。

I think that the Nebuta tree dialect has a much wider area, and the custom of shedding the branches of this tree is also wider than the land of Nebuta Nagashi.

 それから今一つ重要だと思うことは、同じ南秋田のうちでも男鹿半島まで行くと、すでにネブリ流しの期日が異なっていることである。

Another important thing is that even within the same South Akita, if you go to the Oga Peninsula, the deadline for the Nebri sink is already different.

たとえば八郎潟に寄った脇元村などで、同じ名を以て呼んでいるのは、盆の十六日の仏送りのことで、この夕は胡瓜と茄子の馬に、例の通り仏様の荷物という食品を負わせ、それに寺から受けて来た札、すなわち仏様を結び付け、火を焚き太鼓を叩いて村内の一地まで送って行く。

For example, in Wakimoto Village, which is close to Hachirogata, the same name is used to send the Buddha on the 16th of the Bon Festival. The tag received from the temple, that is, the Buddha, is tied to it, and the fire is lit and the drum is beaten to send it to a place in the village.

それがこの土地のネブリ流しである。

That is the Nebri sink of this land.

七日には七回赤飯を食べ七度水を浴びるという習わしもあり、宵にはまた子供たちが燈籠を持ってあるくが、こちらにはそういう名がないという(寒風山麓農民手記)。

There is also a custom of eating red rice seven times and bathing in water seven times on the seventh day, and children have lanterns again in the evening, but it is said that there is no such name here (Peasant's memoir at the foot of the cold wind).

眠流しの最初の趣意が、魂送りや聖霊舟のそれと、本来同じであった一つの証拠ではないかと私は思っているが、これだけではまだ多くの人の同意は得難いであろう。

I suspect that the first intention of the sleep is one proof that was originally the same as that of the soul-sending and the Holy Spirit boat, but this alone is still difficult to obtain the consent of many people.

Five

 青森県各地のネブタ流しに就いては、ずっと以前に、自分も書いたことがあり(郷土研究二巻五号)、またそれから以後ますます全国的に著名になって来たから、もう詳しくこれを記述する必要もないが、ほんの二三の要点と思う所を揚げておくと、まず第一に現在の大きな町のネブタは、信州あたりの眠流しと比べて、どこに一つの似た所もないほどちがっている。

I wrote about Nebuta-nagashi in various parts of Aomori prefecture long ago (Local Studies Vol. 2, No. 5), and since then it has become more and more famous nationwide. There is no need to describe it, but to mention just a few points, first of all, Nebuta, a large town today, has no similarities compared to the sleeper in Shinshu. It's wrong.